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Year 2013. События за год 2013


January 04, 2013     AL2O3, SIO2.

 Thanks Boris, in vacuum under temperature Ti2O3 on C surface will be perfectly react with outcome of Ti and CO. Layer of Ti can be formed on top of layer of a C (carbon particles, nanotubes, graphene, just name it). Question how to recycle C – as a first task to catch CO, and second question is to separate CO (as I understand that can be done by chlorella – living creature does it perfectly). And thanks for tip how to make experiments – Clay is Al2O3 + SiO2 — needs to grind to smallest as possible particles. Dried as much as possible. Place dust into a vacuum chamber and try to separate by electrostatics. Low grade of vacuum (1mm) actually will help to charge dust particle. 6 time bigger gravitation force can be compensated. If separation can be achieved – well, it will be good.

FEBRUARY 28, 2013 02:04 PM Day off. E-mail, old video R1/V2replica, etc.

It is like after the last mid-term exam – next morning you hesitate what to do next. Day off as it is. Well, somebody e-mailed picture of engines – small one is from Isaev’s family (same type used in Russian direct lunar flight/landing). Second (big on a tray) was from antiaircraft/ antimissile S-200.

Last kill 50 people over Black Sea in 2001. Both used heavily toxic fuel (one drop kills all birds in radius 25m), but perfectly reliable. In tragic accident in 2001 Ukrainian military did not have any idea how they shoot down Russian civilian aircraft flying from Israel to Siberia.

If the same e-mail from CESKY ZNALECKY INSTITUT was send to another teams that is attachment with firing/operation/training instructions for a second engine (sorry, in Russian, but math formulas looks nice).

Some engines

Also posted two episodes from Old Russian de-classified technical recording video made in 1948. Was long circulated via internet. Its first customer was Josef Stalin, and then, after, it was used as a training video. A lot of current documentary used some parts of the video recently. Includes frames with Korolev, Chertoc, Glushro, Barmin. In part 4 is a statement: “...V-2 type rocket was successfully replicated from all domestic materials...”.

Video is interesting because of part 4 (in next post). At the beginning was descriptions of all failures (rockets/engnes/etc.), then all failures analyzed and fixes explained. At the end a small portion of a successful flights (not in chronological order).

Closed Captioning added - tried different languages by google translation.

Enjoy and do not consider that video as a post according MTA, it just for recreation == copyright technically should belong to Uncle Joe.

MARCH 01, 2013 10:45 PM Old technical recording. R1 (V2/A4) replica. Events behind the film.

In part 4 of 1948 the documentary explained all failure rocket/engines/systems and then briefly mentioned successful launches. All test failure analyzed, problems and fixes recorded on film and explained in details.

Test 1. Rocket #4. Failure explained by Boris Chertok:- “I was responsible for the first crash,” declared Chernov. “At the launch site, Korolev saw me, called me over to the launch pad, and explained, ‘This missile is Soviet, but the launch pad is still German. Do you see the onboard skid contact? It starts the timer at the moment of launch. Its rod rests in a corresponding niche on the launch pad. The pad needs to be fixed so that everything will be ready by morning.’” Chernov was devising and designing all evening. He woke up the metalworkers in the middle of the night and by morning in the workshop on the special train they had produced his version of the skid contact stop, or more correctly speaking, the liftoff contact. According to Chernov’s version of the story, his student design did not withstand the powerful pop, and the contact broke after the “ignition” command rather than after the missile lifted off from the launch pad. The horizon gyro timer started ahead of time; a pitch command was sent to the control surfaces, tilting the missile immediately while it was still on the pad. As the missile was leaving the pad, the plume was pointed, not vertically, but at an angle, and it hurled the pad off into the steppe."

Test 2. Rocket #3. Failure - "The second missile proved to be even more obstinate. To begin with, the ground crews eliminated all the defects in the ground-based cable network. Next, during two launch attempts the engine did not start, despite the fact that the system did not reset. After long experiments on a missile standing on the pad, they discovered that the main oxygen valve had frozen. Eventually they removed the oxygen valve from one of the missiles and checked its ability to freeze. They determined that the cause of the failure was the stiffening of the abundant amount of oil in its bellows assembly. The missile tests were discontinued. The main oxygen valves were removed from all the missiles and sent to the factory in Khimki for degreasing. This was a powerful blow to engine designer"

After third test failure - "The high-ranking leaders had been fully convinced that we had not only studied and reproduced German technology, but had substantially increased the missiles’ reliability. And now suddenly they discovered that the missiles, for various reasons, simply refused to fly."

Event behind film - "The next missile launch scheduled for 1 November was postponed due to severe fog. During the night, the sentry guarding the launch site showed exceptional vigilance and for some unknown reason shouted, “Stop! Who goes there?” No response came out of the fog and he fired a warning shot. The guard raised by the alarm found nothing suspicious in the surrounding area. Arriving at the site the next morning, the launch team immediately smelled the strong scent of alcohol. An inspection showed that the shot the night before had not been fired into the air, but rather into the filled alcohol tank. The missile’s entire tail section was drenched with alcohol from the bullet hole. They removed the missile and shipped it to the factory in Podlipki for restoration and sent the sentry to the brig. Voznyuk was advised of the guards’ utterly unsatisfactory training."

Operator turned launch's key actually launched first satellite and first man into the space. All military personal recorded in film rest of their life was involved in space launches.

Official conclusion: “The first series of R-1 domestic missiles in terms of their flight characteristics, as demonstrated by the flight tests, were not inferior to the captured A4 missiles. Fundamental issues during the reproduction of R-1 missiles from domestic materials were correctly resolved … The flight characteristics of the first series of R-1 missiles conform to the characteristics specified by the tactical and technical requirements, with the exception of range scatter.”

Combat general statement - "What are you doing? You pour over four metric tons of alcohol into a missile. And if you were to give that alcohol to my division, they could take any city easily. And your missile wouldn’t even hit that city! Who needs it?"

All military likes alcohol! What else to say. Perfect choice made by Von Broun for space exploration!

ON MARCH 05, 2013 09:11 PM Main PCB board with 3 CPU on it (including GPS).

Soldering kainda a problem - for indium alloy (In60Pb40)it is very time consuming, with indium(In60Pb40) soldering paste is less available and expensive, with indium (In100) paste is low strength (SMD components can not withstand good vibration), plus is 155C max, plus it is less sticky.

For ground station and CS prototype used Sn60Pn40. For relatively simple board process takes 2 hours for components list, 1 hour for manual paste distribution, 1 hour for placing SMD, 7 min in oven. For InPb soldering it will take around 2+6 hours. s.
And it will be less video from now on – next CubeSat flight software.

ON MARCH 04, 2013 10:12 PM 2.4Ghz LNA, test's failures, and finally == worked.

A lot of failures and attempts to make “2.4Ghz LNA” working, and at clear sky over Vancouver it finally done. Tests includes standard BlueTooth transmitter/receiver 1mWt (0 dBm) and second device (LNA with cascade 3x12 =36 dB, transmitter 6dBm 4mWt). “Standard 0dBm” transmitting signal needs to be picked up from 10km. At the same time “standard – receive” will be picked up from 4 km. Two persons with cell-phones call each other and confirm communication session by looking on a blinking LED. LED blinks only when proper packet was received and processed (including restoration of noisy packets from different BT and WiFi transmitters in urban environment). Noise also has to be suppressed from cell-pones stationary transmitters (on top of SFU hill and QE park at Vancouver).

Design from the beginning was successful but was not able to be proved by range tests, each time max range was 1km. Finally problem was resolved when Gregory an Boris pointed that “coaxial wire” is probably is not a “real coaxial. Impedance of wire was measured, adjustments was done, and at rainy day poaring rain brought conformation that everything is working, then on march day at clear sky over Vancouver comes conformation of range tests, 2.5km-OK;;

Even to do test on 10km was not necessary. Signal received by standard BT from 6dBm was picked up on 4km, and according “rainy test” that mean antennas-amplifiers system must to pickup signal over 20km which is more than it was expected.

ON MARCH 11, 2013 11:37 AM Canadian Space Commerce Association

On March 7th, 2013 in Toronto took place annual Canadian Space Commerce Association. More details and presentations on: . and on Lot of people – lot of information about space commerce

ON MARCH 12, 2013 11:37 AM Software.

Finally software to be taking care – to get landing page of Craft/Cubesat Mission Control click on link “Craft's /CubeSat's Mission Control. Follow link below” from the page

Source code for mission control RL

Source code for main processor managing GPS, Camera, HD Camera, backup communication is

Source code for 2.4Ghz communication on

That code (I hope) will changed a lot in next 2-3 weeks.

All sources code and 3D designs are on

ON MARCH 14, 2013 05:13 PM Aluminum, again.

With full interaction 27g Al (1 mol) with H2O to form the amorphous Al(OH)3 and H2 by reaction produces 418 kJ of heat. According to calculations by the stoichiometric equation of the chemical reaction for the complete oxidation of 27g (1 mol) of aluminum requires 54g (3 mol) of H2O, with proportion mass of water to the mass of aluminum in 2 times: H2O: Al = 54:27 = 2 : 1: reaction:

2Al+6H2O3 = 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2 H2


2Al + 3H2O = Al2O3 + 3H2

Released at the same time the amount of heat, in the absence of cooling, it is enough to heat the reaction product to a temperature of 2300°C. (based on in

On for comparison - 1kg of aluminum can give 0.11kr of hydrogen with volume 1.24m3 and it is equivalent of a (to compare with gasoline 46mJ/kg) 0.296kg of gasoline. All this articles was about methods how to produce hydrogen using fine aluminum and the water.

Interesting table on page 103 of Introducing more water makes process more controllable.

Victor can you check (just curious!). If, instead of H2O, it is mixture of 50%H2O and 50%H2O2 (or may be in another proportion), than: 2H2O2 = 2H2O + O2, and 2Al + 3H2O = Al2O3 + 3H2, and combustion of hydrogen and oxygen also adds released energy. Under normal temperature all components are stable (well, some sort of for H2O2), but if cylinder shaped piece of aluminum will be ignited and mixture will be delivered to a place of burning via cooling channels(inside aluminum cylinder). Then process of burning can be controllable (ignore Ignition problem for now). Where I am wrong?

MARCH 15, 2013 12:51 PM "Communication session" DB.

Thanks, Serg, MySQL is not really my, but yours. To my pleasure language is different from another SQL. StorProcs are different, has a problems with integration to VS2010 and etc. All are hard to learn in one day. Pros- for MYSQL - according Victor - available MS product has limitation - on size - for big DB needs to pay in 3 zeroes, another plus for MySQL- according Boris MySQL perfectly can holds gigabytes, especially on SSD. Cons- According to Victor - time to be spend will the same as pay for commercial product in same 3 zeros.

All what needs from you are - to store from a “ground- station- control- computer” via web interface (i.e. page Post.aspx) record into a table in "Communication session" database with fields (a) session identifier (b) type of record ("uplink"/"downlink"/"downlink-was-with-error) (c) packet number (d) station identifier/backup channel (e) variable data size and two times (f) time of WebControl (g) time of send/receive via ground stations. Simple and non fancy. Also need to have one BD per one table.

I'll take care of”listening" software on a ground station computer. It is includes control for a ground station antenna / rover, and transmitter/receiver.

For you- via web interface (you can see "mockup" page GroundStation.aspx) will be set addresses and another parameters for station control computer. Then on a page

CraftCubeSat.aspx will be formed commands to be sent to a craft/Cubesats. Click on "send" button initiates transfer of uplink data to IP connected GrStn computer (that will be my headache to post/get data from one web server to GrStn software). GrStn software accepts command and send it to uplink (or to Azimuth / altitude controls, GrStn diagnostics) and posts back to website one records with a new session number, "uplink" / "GrStn_control" / "diag" type, GrStn number, "real" send time, and with packet's number is 0. As a result in DB will be exactly what send to uplink was. Then response (downlink) received on a 2.4Ghz communication will be posted as a second record into DB. Difference is a received time, packet number, and type. One "uplink" can creates many "downlinks". If packed can not be restored by algorithms inside communication system's microprocessor, then record will be with type of "downlink-broken-record". New uplink reset packet number to 0 and assign new session number. Another page to view (list) is a SessionData.aspx on it will be possible to visually check data.

That approach makes initial data to be stored as its. Any derivatives like retriving video or pictures or telemetry can be done separatly from a process of communication and control. Broken packages (impossible to restore in real time) can be restored later (using hash algorithm's matching). In that case additional record (of a restored packet) will be inserted additionally to a original broken packet. All addons can be done separatly, independently, and from different distributed processing computers.

I need for tonight: (a) Post.aspx page (needs to strip site.master's copy, long responce from IIS is not nessesary) (b)another page (for testing and manual entry) SesionPost.aspx (c) C# code for MyrSQL data insertion (d) visualization DB page Sessiondata.aspx (e) StorProc to get new Session number (table do not have "uniqe key" field or whatever terminology used in YourSQL).

SatCtrl web server available from link on a page If it is not working then ether – I am debugging, or give me a call I’ll reset server.


thnks Serg. Well done. Just to small remind - I need StoreProc. Friday - Are you coming to Korean БАНЯ? I have beer. I have to pick up next portion of just printed lunar money and then we can go.

ON MARCH 19, 2013 02:15 PM Ground Station communication.
Part of the software is It is interface hub talking via communication port to a ground station’s 2.4Ghz communication system and controls. From other side it communicates with a SatCtrl website to provide session’s data to be stored and processed. Via ground station's 2.4ghz system GrStn communicates to a satellite controls, sensors, and data storage. Download of a latest executable module on a page “About” of a SatCtrl.

Difference in packet type – for Cubesat/craft uplink type=’1’; for cubesat/craft downlink type=’2’ for cubesat/craft broken packages type= ‘3’ , for ground station uplink control type ‘4’, for ground station downlink type = ‘5’. Posting to SatCtrl- done, parsing response from satCtrl –TBD, POST from satCtrl –TBD, comm reading/ writing threads -TBD.

ON MARCH 21, 2013 01:20 PM First Lunaro Sterling transactions.

On March 18 2013, Team PlanB's partners (in team there are no, and will not be employees, or volunteers - only partners) get first cash in Lunaro Sterling money. Shura, Nadia, Yuri, Victor, Boris, Kostia, Gregory, Serg, Andrey, Nadezda, thanks you for your extraordinary contributions. The Moon is still on the same place as it was last 4 billions years - on the sky. But your efforts and ideas made the sky closer.

ON MARCH 22, 2013 02:30 PM Inexperienced programmer

Inexperienced programmer's voice – 3.1415926535897932384626433832795! Google+ pages's egocentrism kills me completely – For what, on the Earth, the Yo-Ma-Yo I do need all those gadgets, if I cannot ask my son on a "his+” page the answer to a question: “How to write, right now, in his MySQL language, lines/code to extract the data?" And for what reason do I needs “friendly suggestions” to meet unknown to me people, who cut-and-paste rubbish (sorry cool information) on their pages, without bothering to find and to point the original source.Well, it is the Hatter’s best -

"... I was obliged to kill the Time…" …"

At the beginning of space age the computer was invented to reach moon and to save dimension 4. “…Not a tick ever since.” – “Sugar = question mark = quote closed = asked the March Hare= dot = full stop

------------------------------------------------------for my friend Shura the translation:

Глас неученого программиста - Ъ + 3.1415926535897932384626433832795!

Эгоцентризм страниц гугла плас меня добивает - на-е-ма-е мне все эти прибамбасы если я не могу спросить своего сына, на его странице(!), как прописать ЕСКУЕЛЬ команду, которая мне нужна сейчас! И на кой ляд мне все эти САГГЭСШЕНС по поводу и без повода незнакомых мне людей, которые перепечатывают белиберду на свои станицы, не трудясь указать оригинальный источник информации. Ничего не скажешь == гениальное изобретение в стиле Болванщика из Алисиной чудесной страны - "А сейчас мы убъем ваше время. Махмуд! Поджигай."

P.S. Question to a Team PlanB

- Вопрос - А почему я ничего не знаю про Вашу команду и Ваш полет на луну?

Ответ - Бог бережет тебя, глупое создание!

ON MARCH 26, 2013 04:18 PM Radiation according horoscope.

Thanks Boris - crystal diffraction of heavy particles can make some "pockets" with low probability of radiation. And also thanks for another idea - stamped, laminated surface of gold leaf in the form of reflective concave mirror can achieve the same. In that case radiation protection for electronics can be done inexpensively - Holes under microchips (anyway done for soldering ground plates) needs to be filled by indium-lead alloy around 2/3 thickness of PCB. The surface tension of the molten alloy forms a concave surface. All that remains - wash off the solder paste in alcohol and apply gold leaf to the surface. According Alan Turing in his Systems of Logic based on Ordinals - our intuition needs to be proved before it becomes ingenuity. Of course we are not MIT to check all this in the lab - but the idea is beautiful.

1993, Moscow, friend's house, "space" talks in a kitchen - -

- R-7 rocket's engine was... mainframe computers are… and was invented....gyrocompass …..

Little, 6 years old girl, patiently listening to a scientific talk, then suddenly asked:

- Uncle Alex, in what year you were born?

- ?! 1959.

- Uncle Alex! You are the pig! According east’s gyroscope!

Nice article can be implemented on Xbox (in Russian. Not sure about appropriate/correct translation to other languages)

ON MARCH 27, 2013 06:06 PM Era of Apollo electronics.

Nice technical article- modern subsidize for old sensors , ADC, and etc. for used in Apollo program -

ON APRIL 03, 2013 05:39 AM Buenos días, Santiago

From Team PlanB

Team Puli

ON APRIL 11, 2013 11:02 AM Mikhail Kochetkov in Vancouver.

In the beginning was the word:

. . само собою как-то приключилось, ь,

Я их обидеть не хотел,

Я просто делелал что хотел,

Я просто делеал что хотел - и получилось.

ON APRIL 12, 2013 06:12 PM Interesting post: Mars-3 found.

Lost in 1971 Mars-3 found on Mars. By analyzing pictures from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

On Mars-3 lander was a rover “Prop-M” designed by Kemurdzhian’s team, similar design used Selenokhod. Post interesting, in a Russian, with Google translate possibility on the page.

ON APRIL 18, 2013 04:36 PM Visualization, XML, trajectory, Lunaro, MySQL.

Thanks Vera!

This is sample ugly animation of two years ago. o.

The Earth In the central point, the moon is the ellipse.

And the trajectory of the flight path missed the lunar surface in the direct flight. This occurred because of insufficient third (main) impulse, and the Prob did not reach the 11/10 distance the Moon's orbit. Rules are - miss direct flight to the celestial body == and satellite will fly in space forever.

Animation made from sequences of a jpeg files produced in tra.exe run. TRA.EXE runs independently (may be on different computer(s) ) and produce jpeg in a projection of a two axes –XY/XZ/YZ, but it is also can output xml file with current positions of sun-earth-moon and polylines of a trajectories (sun-moon-earth-satellites), all what I need is visualization. Java is ok – I do not think it will be strong requirements to install java+java3D on computers running ground stations. From page click on link "In development Craft's /CubeSat's Mission Control. Follow link below ", or directly - on click on "Simulation".

For sure if it is possible to do visualization without java but with scalable vector graphics – in that case I can dump java applets and use Jscript. Attached .xml files with samples of coordinates. Also need to use textures (maps of earth/moon) and lights to have a realistic of day/night line – otherwise without lights it is complicated to modify textures on a fly. I like link but I do not think it will be millions of the users interested in visualization of a GPS satellite position and trajectory calculations/visualization. For a nice representation of a flight path l would prefer to make a screen's saver with dynamic animation (length 1 min max) and with changing view angle on each run. In that case screen's saver can become a useful tool – running on hundreds/thousands computers and picking up from server values for possible trajectory (like - one computer tries one ranges of impulses, another computer tries another set – you know - distributed calculations). With java I can easily do this – switch from the applet to the application, but what about Jscript and SWG?

Now about MySQL and Lunaro – Today I know how to do Lunaro's transactions without recording personal information – only place where personal information will be present is the session (session's variables) on the server (server is protected by HTTPS) and E-mail delivery system. I did not finalized cases of fractional payments (like 0.0015 Lunaro), and postponed delivery of coin(s) after original payment (again question is about storage/location of personal information).

If to look at BitCoins - it is a nice idea, but it is not what I have in mind. Truly speaking all mathematicians must be jealous – BitCoin is monetization of prime numbers. Next stop will be, let say, a using irrational numbers as silver, and complex numbers as gold (“ How much for a nice looking, last million digits of 3.1415..? Can I use 3.1415..+j2.7182818284… as a guaranty for home renovation loan?”). BitTorent (as distributed storage and processing) idea is not quite fit to a BitCoin/ banking system – in any transaction needs to have “trusted witness” – more servers runs, more chance for cheating. Distributed system should be used to recovery from a loss (different reasons for loss – technical, legal, etc) of the trusted servers. If MySQL can work as a clusters with all-masters mode, and with replication process done automatically, that that is exactly what it is needed.

Another problem (to be accounted) is stated on their website - BitCoins are for transaction, not for capitalization. Two nuggets of gold extracted from earth are not equivalent of two proved prime numbers (sorry four to be exact), even was used the same amount of electricity to extract/to get. If somebody uses some prime numbers, proved by a computers' calculation, and anybody can find the same prime number just by pure luck, than for sure system works when prime numbers has to be disposed regularly. If to talk about money, the capitalization needs to be solved, otherwise the scam or crush pre-programmed to the system. I think physical object needs to be used (by the way Victor’s suggestion about rare earth elements are not crazy to speak), capitalization and transaction is like potential and inertial energy in dynamic system - required for stabilization.

ON APRIL 20, 2013 11:46 PM Overview of mission control

Last week's changes

on -

ON APRIL 24, 2013 01:56 PM Simulation for ground station.
Last travisual.xml file includes trajectory of the moon in last 60 minutes (it shows polyline how moon rotates around earth) and also coordinates (trajectories) of (up to 10) satellites - on a server ( tra.exe running now in loop and output updated travisual.xml - (click couple times on the it is constantly updated - in processing of the file needs to handle a non-finished-write-to-the-file cases).

last changes was s

- to manipulate (re-size/rotates/move) the earth-moon system

- to pickup latest travisual.xml with last positions.

Today i need to update real time position of the satellites (now it require to reload applets) and somehow to show azimuth + longitude for satellite when it will fly over ground station.

I also need (It is my main goal - after visualization to continue with ground station software) to have a "view" button on a surface of the sphere (earth) at ground station location, for that I need to show night sky with stars, or at least some longitude latitude mesh. I have no idea how to do this.

V., can you check how applet will work for you ( - texture of a earth and the moon downloaded separately - I need to know the delay - when I tests behind a router it (the router) slows down download of the files and I do not get proper value of a download time - and from my another desktop java does not work - no clue how to make java working back on that computer.

I talked yesterday with Boris - he told that in his last project (some automation) he tried all SVG/GL, Java applets and Silverlight

Best was Silverlight - Microsoft was fastest to run, fast to get real time data and faster in development (C#).

- SVG/GL was slow by any compare, except rapid prototyping.

- java was ok, but tools to developed was really archaic, problem was with real-time.

And I tied yesterday Silverlight - to switch now it will push be back for at least one week to learn how to do lights and etc.

ON APRIL 28, 2013 01:27 AM  Communication, sat's trajectory simulation.

Communication, packages of commands, re-design from standard modem communication implementation, flush memory buffer to speed up data transfer, triple flush memory with majority voting (protection from radiation damage). Visualization of calculated trajectory in simulator to generate commands for (a) ground station and (b) craft/cubesat. GPS satellites traject's simulation for proper calculation of a craft/ground station positions.

Also suggested to watch perfect video about design and manufacturing of a Apollo computer (MIT). My favorite part are buttons on the front panel. Video finally made available on youtube last year. Enjoy:

ON MAY 03, 2013 04:57 PM Three news – for today

1 - Well, Serg, Canada printing “space” money now!

“In a world first, Canada’s Chris Hadfield unveiled a new money note — while in space.”… …

And Chris already brought to the International Space Station hockey puck.

2 - Estonia launched first EstCube on first ESA VEGA mini satellite launcher.

Congratulations Tartu!

3 - Serg you video did not make it.


that mesaage was blocked by Google plus when I post it yesterday

ON MAY 06, 2013 11:41 AM One checkbox implementation in web interface

One checkbox implementation in mission control web interface - real-time data for orientation vectors for ground station antenna. == Same xml file used for visualization of a CubeSat trajectory, also used to feed antenna control. .

TRA application now can accept data in XML format from a remote, dynamically created "initial" position, and post results of trajectory calculations back to the same or even different server. That future allows to calculate trajectory and engines firing time in parallel via distributed calculations network. Probably the same mechanism can be used in screen saver app.

details on

ON MAY 10, 2013 03:23 PM Interesting video about Mars program.

Korolev initial intention (same as Von Brown) was a planet Mars, not the Moon. Facts about researches done in that program in 1960-1970 – artificial gravity and anabiosis.

in 1960 Valery Kubasov (that time young engineer from ballistic group, after- cosmonaut on Souze) started to work on trajectory calculation on Mars mission, craft's components, weight of a TMK.

Planning mission's window was on 1972-1974 (closest distance for earth-mars), that date was matching with a time when NK-33 engines (exactly same used in last flight of Antares) was ready to be tested before flight. For lunar flight, NK-33 engines was not capable to be ignited twice, as a result tests of NK-33 was done by “random pick” – two engines from four (built on same factory and from same materials) was fire-tested – on any problems in tests all four engines was rejected, but if tests of two engines passed successfully than two never fired engines was accepted (it was common and strange test's technic – but was practiced in military for hundreds years). Korolev planned to had “testable” engines at the beginning of 70th.

It was required 7 launches of N-1 rockets to assemble 75*8= 600 ton space craft.

For artificial gravity experiments was planned one Voskhod flight, canceled after death of Korolev.

To test artificial gravitation on earth (15:37 from the beginning of the movie ) was build apparatus and tests was conducted – results – weightless is better than artificial gravity – after just two hours in such condition testers (including the designer of an apparatus) become totally seasick, was able to consume as a food only a chicken soup.

To survive radiation (solar sudden bursts) (see 21:38) was tested hypobioses” (anabiosis). Experiments were conducted in 1960-1966 years and were inspired by facts that mammals in natural suspended animation can withstand high dose of radiation than in “normal” state.

Idea of temperature induced “anabiosis” was abandoned personally by Korolev, after he check what equipment needed for such medical operation.

Chemically induced hypobioses was tested successfully on mice and dogs, trick was to reduce process of oxygenation on cell's level. Prolongation was 1 day, and suspended animation allowed dog to survive 70G in 5 minute, 800Rx dose of lethal radiation on mice, 70% reduction of oxygen use. That can allow to reduce amount of a lead protection on a space craft 2-3 times, make smaller emergency return vehicle, reduce of require oxygen in emergency situation by 70%. Ideal was to sleep part time of a flight to Mars. Side effect was intoxication after couple hours after returning to normal state from hypobioses. That did not stopped Korolev – he insisted that winning couple hours in emergency situation can save the lives in space. In 1966 was found the reason for intoxication – leftover in digestion system was not in a “sleeping” state. After slowing process (instead of minutes) the prolongation time was reached 5 days. Tests was closed after 1966, and was never conducted on humans.

In a movie –

Hypobiosis - Nikolay Timofeev originally started his work in space research on ejection sit of Vostok space ship.

Artificial gravity – Leonid Kitaev-Smik

Ballistic calculations - Valery Kubasov (also participated in Apollo-Soyuz mission).


P.S. Well, well, well Victor – you are definitely a pragmatic man. It is nice to collect your opinion. According Victor, fast procedure to induce, chemical nature of hypobioses , after intoxication related to digestion system, reduction of oxygen use more than half, all point out to the well known (by thousand years) medical substance. Only problem – easy addiction.

ON MAY 13, 2013 10:19 PM     Ground Station, rover ver 6, clearance, solar power harvesting surface.

Last week was spent in redesign of a rover and ground station. It was done by three main reasons –

a) ground station needs to be build and 3D models for 3D printer has to be finalized.

b) clearance of a rover needs to be increased.

c) needs to increase solar power harvesting surface.

In old design on frame was mounts for flexible solar panels (cells).

each cell has size 25.4 x 63.5 mm = 16 square centimeters.

length (long side )of the frame was 600mm, that gives a place for 23 panels with total surface of 0.037m^2

two frames allows to use 4 times more - total 92 cells, or total .14 m^2

with efficiency of 0.09(9%) and power of a sun per square meter = 1000Wt surface can give 13.35 watt total.

Top side of a rover can harvest some energy, but at the same time bottom did not, it is in shadow – outcome power probably is half == 6 watts.

Solar panels mounted on frame with 45 degree angle.

Problem (b) frame is not flexible, in can stuck on terrain - as a result needs to increase clearance.

Second problem (c) - needs to increase harvesting power surface. (6 watt capable source with 40% efficiency of a 10 watt transmitter, means that transfer of data can be done only in 1 minutes with another 3 minutes 20 seconds waits to harvest the energy.

Flexible solar panel side is 63.5 mm. Assuming it is hypotenuse - that geometrically gives in prime triangle with 45 degree angle, side sizes 45+45mm – which is bigger that original 63mm.

Sizes of each cell will be smaller (like 25.4 mm x 44.9 mm) but on same frame now it is 46 cells with 0.052 m^2.

On 2 frames can be placed 4 groups of 46 cells, calculating same efficiency and same Sun’s power, that surface allows to harvest total 18.8 watt.

Same top-bottom and max outcome power is 9 watt. That is better, than previous design, and it mean == 1 minutes to transmit + 2 minutes to harvest.

Placing additional 2 stand (length 0.5m) which can hold 19x4 = 76 small size panels outcome additional 0.17m^2 with total power 15wt (and half of tit is 7wt). Gives the grand total is 34wt from all surfaces, and halfing gives max s 17 watt power. Which is not bad – on top of each minute to transmit it will require 35 seconds to harvest.

Now the question where to place that two stands. Plus needs to balance weight- i.e - 350grams for each 4 stepper motor, but gear motors can be reduced to have less torque. That can save around 50-100 grams on a motors in favor for stands. Reducing clearance makes smaller dimensions and also saves weight.

Total amount solar cell (sizes 45x25mm) to accommodate on rover today is 168. With weight limit of 400 grams for all system it is 2.3 grams per flexible cell including weights of holders and mounts. Plus needs to account that after 3 week flight cells will lost 1/2 of it power capability. Realistically it will be 8 watt of power at best.

That is a theory – up today Ground station's 3D models probably ready to be ordered, but rover's energy harvesting mounts not finalized yet.

MAY 26, 2013 10:42 PM     3 configurations, Mission Ctrl + Ground station integration

Last 2 weeks - Rover - was done 3 configurations.

a) Rover as moon rover - it is a "virtual rover". Exists in 3D model formats. Majority parts has to be made from carbon fiber. To make each (carbon fiber) part need to design molds, and to print molds from PVA (like this) on a 3D printer (like that). Today we know that on that printer, to make all molds, and to make all carbon fiber frames (like this), with "space capable to fly" epoxy (like this) it is require total 45 days. That is why we named that moon rover as a "virtual one". Before arrangements of the flight to the moon, it is not practical to spend time and efforts to build such device. Only demonstration can be a purpose for rush, to build a "virtual rover".

b) Rover as a ground station for a test flight. That is exactly same rover but designed to operate on the earth surface. In this case it is not require use of carbon fiber. Same parts can be made from less strong plastic.

c) Compact version of a rover. It is not a rover truly speaking -- it looks like regular ground station, but parts for such configuration is exactly same as in configuration (b). That compact version also is for a debugging software purposes. Configuration (b) and (c) has totally different mechanical properties, but software which will control 4 stepper motors in first configuration and 2 steppers motors in second configuration, must be the same, software should be self adaptable for such different mechanical configuration, to perform task for orientation the antenna to a moving target -- flying cubesat.

Plus convenience to use 3D printing on factory allows, to separate process of design and manufacturing, make ground station on 2.4Ghz for a cubesat repeatable, and, who knows!, can allow to support main project by taking orders to build 2.5 GHz ground stations. Parts can be ordered on next week via shapeways factory.

Antenna will be regular helix (like this one), or reduced size helix (like that one). Reduced size helix has major advantages -- 3D print is twice less expensive than regular helix; different winding of a conductor allows to reduce interference of two transmitters working on the same frequency at the same time, which is important in a case of constellation of cubesats flying together.

Ground station electronics and software. The same main processor board for ground station (like this) is reused from a cubesat main processor board. Last week was done integration of a board with mission control, today mission control can operate flash memory and main computer commands. Some improvements was done on simulation of a flight, and session data visualization.

JUNE 04, 2013 10:58 PM     3D printed parts of ground station/rover, Main PCB, etc.

In software development exist rule - if source code working from the beginning - that mean only one -- something wrong with a source code. Such excitement discovery was made last week by Alex -- he was wondering why main computer board starts to function right away, but 3.3 voltage regulator during last month was overheated like boiling water -- well it was simple 6 SMD components was soldered upside-down. Current was 180 milliamps, instead of 18. Fix was quick -- it takes 10 minutes to rework PCB, but positive part is components was chosen properly - all 6 SMDs was working perfectly after 1 month stress.

Integration continue on GPS and Camera. HD Camera waiting it turn together with Orbitcomm backup communication modem. Integration at the rest of the week was not a full scale SNAFU, which was bothered Alex little bit. And finally -- all 3D printed parts for a rover and ground station showed up last Friday. Some imperfections was fixed - like this on a HD camera sealed box, or on camera box -- probably the thickness of a wall (target == made from carbon fiber) will be OK, but for rover testing (that part additionally to a camera box functionality will be used as a leg for a movement) plastic is not strong enough. For reduced size ground station tubes was made from aluminum, and assembly was in a progress

JUNE 04, 2013 10:58 PM     My lost audience.

Old lady, doctor, not much relatives left in my old city, no kids, never had husband, cranky, got a cancer after getting in her professional life more radiation from medical equipment than acceptable today norms. Plus she do not want to go to a nursing house, got best prediction to live weeks, may be months, do not want to accept money's help, and, as ex-doctor understand her medical condition better than anybody else.

What to do if I am half a globe from her? I started to call her over phone and give her update about competition, all exciting for me and absolutely boring to everybody else information, - how to calculate partial derivatives of a gravitation potential of the earth, how to calibrate gyroscope using quaternions , how to design error correction radio protocol. To my surprise she did understood what I was talking, on next phone call she replied – “yep – quaternion is like complex numbers but 4 dimensional – you told me that”. After that come another surprise, doctors usually hard to accept the treatment and medicine for themselves, and placebo is extremely hard to find, looks like their profession gives them enough information about methods and procedures of the modern medicine. To that my second surprise, stories spoken over the phone become sort of placebo, her voice became better and stronger after talk. I phoned her like I posted blogs on GLXPRIZE website, sometime each day, sometime once per week, sometime per month, but only with good news. She was learning ideas how to do this or that in the space, in the competition, in business, and that helped her, she stopped to complain, her first question become – “when will be a launch of your rocket”.

I lost my most hungry-to-learning audience yesterday.

JUNE 11, 2013 01:45 PM     Clock synchronization between modules.

For proper functionality of Mission Control web site, Ground Station’s software, Ground Station’s microcontrollers, communication modules on ground station and on CubeSat, needs to synchronize clocks and timers on all devices. That process can be done in hardware. Software implementation of the process, has it is own challenges, but can bring advantages like ability to get orbit parameters.

Assembled part of ground station. Gear & wheels.

JUNE 18, 2013 12:45 PM     Data protocol extension. GPS implementation.

Packets transferred between microprocessors can be noisy, data can be lost. To recover from errors in header of the packet was added double unit address. Last byte in a packet can be skipped. Re transmit of the data to different micro-unit implemented on interrupt level.

Communication module do not work "like-modem" anymore. For upload data over radio-link in a packet was introduced CMD*. After CMD* rest of the packet transfer ether back to serial com (if no connection) or to the other communication module. CMD= extended to re transmit data to a another micro-unit.

GPS has a bad reception in concrete building. That creates problems in debugging GPS data processing inside main controller, - needs to take laptop and go outside.

Another SMD device able to retrieve raw GPS/GLOSNAT data was discovered - SE4110L. Without limitations on traveling speed and altitude. Device outputs data after ADC conversion. All data has to be processed in micro controller. Disadvantage - industrial temperature range.

Another alternative to GPS/GLOSSNAT was investigated but it is premature to say anything now - needs to process captured digitized data.

Serg was asked to embed some jokes to his presentation.

Внесены изменения в протокол обмена данными. Для восстановления от потерь хвостов пакетов в заголовок разрешен дублированный адрес. Закрывающий байт пакета может быть пропущен. Коммуникационные модули перестали быть модемами, для космической коммуникации это не практично. Внесена команда * - загрузки данных на подсоединенное устройство. Расширена (восстановлена из предыдущего небытия) команда = для ретрансляции пакетов.

GPS задрал - очень плохой прием в железобетонном здании. Как дурак берешь лаптоп и прешся в скверик, и вместо работы рассказываешь лекцию на тему - а что такое космос.

Появилась микросхема с полными причандалами GPS/GLOSNATA - SE4110L, до АЦП включительно, коштуе 3 бакса, хреноватый температурный режим -40+85. Достоинство - всю математику нужно считать самому и можно не платить за сертификацинную GPS (цена больше 10 штук, плюс нужно доказывать, что не был и в верблюдах не состоял) с отключенной защитой от скоростей больше 500 метров в секунду.

Другая альтернатива GPS обдумывалась, компонеты заказаны, и даже идея была опробована, - но пока все это несерьезные спекуляции - нужно обработать данные.

JUNE 27, 2013 11:11 PM     Modem, Lunaro, RF noise pattern detection.

2.4 communication protocol implementation to be continued. If Implementation "as a Modem" is not good - to bad for implementation - source code was to be cut. Lunaro sterling coins database and web interface mock-up. Small program to detect noise patterns in RF. That's it for a past 1.5 week.

Модем не подходит - модем должен быть перепрограммирован. Лунаро монета - мок-ап базы даннах и веб интерфейса. Выделение паттерна шума из радио сигнала.

JULY 15, 2013 06:07 PM     Interesting article about 3D printing

JUNE 28, 2013 11:27 AM     Space money by Pay Pal?

JULY 17, 2013 12:57 PM     Video update, July 16, 2013.

grounds station, communication protocol, flash memory, molds, carbon fiber.

JULY 31, 2013 02:03 PM - 2-from-3 majority logic.

Dnepr back in service: , price did not changes from 31$mln listed on 18 Apr 2012 (price mentioned only on Russian version of a page: ) . “Rokot” rocket launches is still suspended after 15 January 2013.
Return to service because – “ agreed with changes on percentage of financial contribution, old percentage was not profitable” - In other words - offset's contractors show each other how much money they want to make.
Rocket is conversion model of “Satan SS-18”, 3.7t on a orbit. F=geptil, O= amil (N2O4) == very toxic.
Vibration profile for Cubesats testing mentioned “Dnepr” rocket's profile.
Interesting from my prospective - on that rocket first time was a failure of triple control system. All 3 system was perfectly working during flight, but delays in different arrival time of the data confused 2-from-3 majority voting logic. Solution – expensive tripling, or total clock's synchronization (which has conflict with tripling of a system).
In article mentioned prices - “Zenit” 80$-90$, and price of “Proton” after series of failure dropped to same as “Zenit” level (previously was 5$+10$ more than “Zenit”).
See also:

AUGUST 07, 2013 04:30 PM Financial adviser & Alex Dobrianski

TD Bank, Saturday, small business bank’s financial adviser(FA) talking with Alex Dobrianski (A).
A: Cosmos….Space ….Rover… Moon… – pause, quick seep of coffee.
FA: And, do you believe in aliens?
A: I do believe in home equity line of credit.
FA: A!!! I got it. Not a problem, not a problem, at all.... But do you think, is it possible, small chance,that, aliens visits our world?

AUGUST 11, 2013 01:31 AM Phone call from investor.

Video update is not ready again – Serg is busy decrypting Alex’s sentences from a ferry Nanaimo - Vancouver.
Instead of Video - just a story, just a story, fresh, from Friday. -
19:30. 3D printer started its 6 hours job, phone call:
- “I am Bla-bla from, to bla-bla credit, you bla-bla years, we bla-bla zero, with bla-bla presents, offer-shmoffer, would you?…”
Usually I listen till first “Bla”, but brandy already expanded blood’s vessels, and comfortable music from stepper motors together with extruder began to circle a foundation of a model’s formation, I laid back and answered:
– “Yes, I’d like”
Other side was excited, and after 10 minutes of verifications – conformations about tricks on tipple percentage of hidden fees, and last name of my mother before she become pregnant, both sides come to a sacral moment. Credit Card was ready to lend money directly to a bank account. The process reached countdown stage.
On count “one”, I asked:
– “Can you guys, – make it, little bit, bigger?”
Excitement on other side reached level of a NASA, discovered fresh life on Mars.
Sum of lending money reached level of entry fee in Google Lunar XPRIZE competition on night of 31th, December 2010, and to-be-paid-after-6-month amount was increased twice. Countdown restarted from a number “10”. On count “one” I challenged:
– “Please, Sir. Can I have some more?”.
Voice from musical repeated:
- “More!?”
Second abort elevated me to a next management level (where do Credit Cards keep managers at 20:00 Friday? On Hawaii?). And first time from the beginning of acquaintance, voice asked with hesitation:
– “How much?”
Now, it was my turn:
- “Moon…Space…Rover…That is music! From 3D printer! Can you hear it on the phone? And, If! To! Place! 3D printer on The Moon!…. 5 min… and rockets, and Space, and X, and R, and 7, V-2, Dnepr-18, and 32….probably 5 – but better be 10, ideal case 20 – only in ideal case… each drop of brandy doubled my money requirements …Canada ... Space…Moon…Hockey…15 min…. 45 minutes of flawless flight.
Nerves of Hawaiian-located manager were touched. He began to convince me that even with 50 grand I can reach my goal and improve my home. He apologized that financial institution have no idea what rockets are, and how to sell SS-18 in case of bankruptcy, but perfectly know how to organize, and what to do with real estate (I asked “What do you mean? –Organize, Real, estate, crush?” – he replied “Yes – we do!”).
We was on top, on Qomolangma, we played Prince of Denmark in The Globus, simultaneously– “To get or not to get”, that question – “this amount”. As Romeo, at counter desk in Shoppers Drug Mart, I declared -“There is thy goal!”, and as Tibald he rushed to stick a sword with hidden fees into the belly of Mercutio. After 1 hour he was exhausted.
Truly speaking it was not fair fight – I have had supply of brandy, and he was sitting in office.
Last his words was: “Would(?). You(!) Like(?). To take the advantage, of our generous offer, and TAKE the money?”
On sentence: “Can we make it bigger, up to 20 millions?!” he drop the phone.
Sorry, my man! You were incredible!

AUGUST 13, 2013 03:14 AM Lunaro Sterling coin. Space money that propel space exploration.

Let's talk today about Lunaro Sterling Coin,which we think can lift Team PlanB, and not only us, to the moon.
If you look closely on "Space progress" in past 60-70 years, what you can see is milestones and breakthroughs were achieved by space enthusiasts like Goddard, Tsiolkovsky, Von Braun, Korolev.
Even today not many people will assign their life, and devote efforts for goals like making Mars habitable for human kind, or to build "space villages", capable to fly to other stars.
Theoretical calculations and stipulations, can be met with low resources. But practical implementation like building controllable explosions to propel payloads into the orbit, requires high resources.
At present and as it was in the last 60 years, nobody will vote -- "pro", to send chunk of money to the sky. The same chunk of money that is equivalent to building a small city.
But each action creates an opposite reaction in this universe, and such practical obstacle, as resources, century ago enthusiasts by-passed them with a smart move.
They promised for men with chevrons on shoulders to deliver dangerous payloads to any place on the globe by simple press of a button.
This decoy in goal worked for enthusiasts. And because of that they were employed, and each minute, every moment, when men in uniform was busy with nasty toys, enthusiasts use this opportunity to reach different targets - to build bigger rocket engine, launch satellite, that left their mark in space, on the moon.
Then, enthusiasm died. "Space progress" has killed the enthusiasm as reaction to massive "action".
Imagine: if the data from "Curiosity rover" would be available to Von Braun and Korolev. Such knowledge will deter any enthusiastic curiosity, because they would see human life on mars an impossible goal.
What choice do enthusiasts have today?,At best, probably, to make a movie. (As we do it now ) It can be done in color, in 3D, better be by a famous film director. And the movie can be watched in Dolby sound, together with popcorn, or on a smart phone on the way to work. Making it perfect sustainable approach.
What else? Crowd-sourcing? On Kikstarter, only one Google Lunar XPRIZE project was funded: "to write the article about the Lunar Google XPRIZE competition", and all other 3 technology-related projects did not reach funding level.
The National Space Agency and military will not support space enthusiasts. In the National Space agency, where enthusiasts are greeted with smile all and every time? Military is satisfied with their "status quo" - they are happy with their offset contracts and support of last century weapons technology.
Skip the business. Business usually interested in cheap "leftover" from space technologies. Even the mining industry with a 10-20 years return of investments period, hesitates to be involved.
It is common sense - if one wants to do something in The Space - it is just, their own problem.
It is essential to invent some independent mechanism to fund "Space devotees", to fund what people can create outside of the Earth surface.
In Team PlanB, we have made our attempt - it is Lunaro Sterling Coin.
First, it is merchandise. We can sell it, the same way as we sell t-shirt.
Second, as a coin, it is valued. It is made from silver. After each 2000 prints, a new design will be made to satisfy criteria: less mintage - more numismatic value.
Third, each coin has a certificate of authenticity provided online. The person owning the coin can set anonymous authentication by himself/herself. The owner of the coin can be changed only by providing such authentication.
More importantly the coin can be used as a barter payments, for service and equipment, outside the Earth surface.
It is similar to the crowd-sourcing approach, but it also keeps doors open for other funding possibilities. Instead of shares investor can purchase coins.
Truly speaking, IT IS "Space money".
In all regulations and laws, it is treated as merchandise. Merchandise on which taxes are paid. Merchandise that cannot can not be prohibited, in any part of the globe, to act as barter's payments for anything not belonging to this world. It is intended to be more than just circulating money, or payment method in Space.
It is designed to lift-off the technology from the earth surface.
"Space money" that does not have national boundaries, and takes advantage on the fact that space does not belong to any national jurisdiction.
The owners of the coins have the power to decide, how, and at what price to sell "Lunaro Sterling"
Team PlanB is ready to share "Lunaro Sterling Coin" design and authentication process with "Space devotees / Space enthusiasts" all over the world.
We do this because we think this is logical, innovative, effective, and “cool” approach to fund space enthusiasts.
What will happen if "Space devotees/ enthusiasts" fail to achieve their objectives and not reach their stars? Well, it will be nothing new in this world. However the coins, will tell the story.
Other updates for last week – communication protocol was ongoing project, (you can visit Github to see and download updates).
RF noise pattern recognition was on hold.
RF Front end prototype for GPS and Galileo system was obtained to develop and to debug positioning software.
Also on Github you can find 3d mold for wheel central holder.
It should be combined technology some elements of the mold (precision) will be made from alumini plastic, some (expendable) from PVA.
We look forward to seeing you again.

AUGUST 19, 2013 01:10 AM Update.

Two words: 3D printer, GPS/Galeleo

Anekdotes - Aug 30, 2013
Moscow Provincial Gazette in 1848: "Le Bourgeois Nikifora Nikitin for seditious speech on space flight to exile in the Kazakh Baikonur settlement."
Московские губернские ведомости 1848 год: "Мещанина Никифора Никитина за крамольные речи о полете в космос сослать в казахское поселение Байконур".

Sandwich, if ejected into space, then sticks to the outside part of the orbital station's porthole.
Бутерброд, выброшенный в открытый космос, прилипает снаружи к самому чистому иллюминатору станции.

Чебурашку послали в космос.
Он сбился с курса и прилетел на планету, полностью населенную такими же чебурашками. Эти чебурашки подходят к нему и говорят: "Ты знаешь, что ты - последний чебурашка, которого нам не хватало? Ты последний элемент.
Теперь энергии чебурашек достаточно, чтобы строить гигантский космический корабль, чтобы захватить всю вселенную! Старуха Шапокляк на самом деле - наш лидер. Она улетела за тобой на Землю, чтобы доставить сюда. Все это не случайно. Давай строить корабль-убийцу."
Чебурашка согласился, и они вместе стали строить гигантский звездолет-убийцу. Под конец дня Чебурашка устал и заснул...
Будит его крокодил Гена.
- Чебурашка, вставай! Я с тобой пить больше не буду! Ты вчера под конец кричал, что чебурашки захватят вселенную, а шапокляк - вождь чебурашек!

Space. Space station in orbit. At the door, strapped on a rope hanging astronaut and bang on the window with his hands and feet:
- Open up! What a stupid habit of asking, "Who's there?"!

Открытый космос, на орбите космическая станция. У люка, пристегнувшись на тросе, висит космонавт и барабанит в стенку руками и ногами с ревом:
- Открой, кретин!!! Что за идиотская привычка спрашивать: "Кто там?"!!!

- Чтобы в космос полететь, надо очень захотеть, - приговаривал таракан, протискиваясь под обшив космического корабля.

AUGUST 30, 2013 01:00 PM Assembly. Wheel. Satellite communication. Encryption. Challenge 10 Lunaro Sterlings.

Encryption Challenge. Prize = 10 Lunaro Sterlings:
decipher the message (click to get exact ciphertext):

- source code, and executable provided,
- key (used for encryption),
- original video (used for key generation) inside this video.
- sample encryption/decryption.

Correct decryption, first, provided before 10 October, 2013 == 10 Lunaro Sterlings award (2020USD Deciphered text send via e-mail to with subject "Encryption Challenge. Prize" and one line of deciphered text.
Available -
- source code:
- key file used in encryption - 111.tkey
- video used in key generation - in current clip.
- sample: text un-encrypted:
cipher text after encryption (same key 111.tkey used):
after decryption:
interesting article about elliptic curves :

Приз – 10 Лунаро Стерлингов.
Первый расшифровавший сообщение до 10 октября 2013 года получает приз – 10 Лунаро Стерлингов (стоимость сегодня 2020$б стоимость 10 октября – 2030USD

(кликните ниже чтобы загрузить точный шифротекст):
=65000000a000000000000000ed45a19834912670eeaace8cc71a0da73a27aa9cff844d1fdc177c1794a5a3913f4757bcfb55a2a4f dda15ca0d0c3a811f3bb68233100d3f6f1f6bda9cdcf60cada1b2f776bf74a4ac66631efe07ff2be56771d058fd9d439517c773adbf7180a3ad0835f1=
Для расшифровки предоставляется
- исходный код программы шифрования
- исполняемая программа для windows (там же)
- ключ использованный для шифрования 111.tkey (там же)
- видео файл используемый для создания ключа
- пример
text un-encrypted:
cipher text after encryption (same key 111.tkey used):
after decryption:

Криптовальная программа предназначена для создания ключей шифроблокнотного типа для обеспечения защиты передаваемых данных между космическими аппаратами и наземными станциями связи, расположенными удаленно от центрального пункта управления полетом. Данный приз предназначен для проверки метода шифрования коммуникации спутниковой связи, предоставляемого Adobri Solutions Ltd на “open source” основе.

SEPTEMBER 09, 2013 11:59 AM Printed Music and etc.

Music, molds, coins, wheels, all was 3D printed. But it is not enough to reach The Moon. Essential to have a software and more important - people who will debug invisible sequence of bytes, stored in floating gates, insulated all around by an oxide layer, of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors.

Музыка, форма для отливки, монеты, колеса, все в этом клипе было отдруковано на трехмерном принтере. Но этого не достаточно чтобы дошкарбуваты до луны. Ще потрiбно програмне забезпечення, и люди которые отладят последовательности небачимих досель (и после) байтов, записаных за допомогою инжекции электронов в плавающие затворы полевых транзисторов, з використанням большой напряженности электрического поля у тонком диэлектрике.

SEPTEMBER 12, 2013 12:48 PM Interesting article about encryption.

Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator.

About BBC's article: (and more official version of what happened is on, original from


All decisions of "approved" / "not-approved" encryption algorithms, based on "SP-800-57" and the document uses definition of word "strength".

As it is specifies on page 61: "…two algorithms are considered to be of comparable strength for the given key sizes (X and Y) if the amount of work needed to “break the algorithms” or determine the keys (with the given key sizes) is approximately the same using a given resource".

Nobody disagree with such approach. And even more, next paragraph stated: "Determining the security strength of an algorithm can be nontrivial."

Basically document points that "strengths" of encryption is “speculation” - nothing more.

But on page 63 presents Table 2 "Comparable strengths". Table is a central and main source, in ALL arbitration of : “ be approved" / "not be approved" / “recommended” / “non-recommended” algorithm/random number generators (in terminology of document DRBG – “Deterministic Random Bit Generator”), and that table consists of "speculations" - i.e: AES-256 has more "strengths" than AES-128 (!), or RSA compares with AES (!??!), or with Elliptic curves encryptions.

Actually. That table is the prime source for those articles (mentioned above).

In our "Satellite Communication Protocol" product we decided to use non-speculative, real secure solutions (random-number-bits sequence) to satisfy high expectation of our future customers.

SEPTEMBER 13, 2013 02:49 PM Camera view on launch.

Cape Canaveral, Aug 7, Delta4 launch, with military communication satellite WGS. Engine RS-68 + GEM 60 solid rocket motors. On orbit it will be XIPS (xenon-ion thrusters), and flexible radiator pipes (allowing to increase radiator area)

SEPTEMBER 16, 2013 01:03 PM Outgassing, epoxy 526N, molding methods. Comm+BT+FLASH memory.

Outgassing. Carbon fiber molding - all steps with epoxy (to get proper part for a space flight).

Reason for outgassing is the classical example - flakes from star sensor's tube confused sensor and unmanned flight was lost.

Outgassing test is main in certification of any equipment for a space flight.

Fixing conflict of writing data to a FLASH memory with simultaneous request from RF core transmitter (Bluetooth) and serial (comm) loop.

Эпоксдка аремко 526N - -70-+300 цульсия. Карбон файбр с этой епоксидкой после затвердевания как ежик - каждая маленькая ниточка превращается в острейшую тончайшую иглу, все пальцы исколол. Полный цикл - 1 час в вакумной камере (10-15мм) для удаления пузырьков воздуха, 12 часов застывание при комнатной температуре, 3 часа при 92цульсиях, затем растворение ПВА формы в воде, второе запекание при 165ц ==2 часа ,и 9 часов ==200ц с вакумом = 1мм

Тест на газирование основной для сертификации любого компонента к полету.

Классичексий пример недачного материала - черная краска на звездном датчике зонда-4 - датчик реагировал на отвалившиеся кусочки краски, как на настоящую звезду.

SEPTEMBER 21, 2013 12:45 PM Two moons.

two moons - one at central ground station location, another on a route to the remoute

SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 01:46 PM Word "sterling" (from dictionary)

Sterling - easterling, LL. esterlingus, probably from Easterling, once the popular name of German trades in England, whose money was of the purest quality.

`Certain merchants of Norwaie, Denmarke, and of others those parties, called Ostomanni, or (as in our vulgar language we tearme them), easterlings, because they lie east in respect of us.'' --Holinshed.

``In the time of . . . King Richard the First, monie coined in the east parts of Germanie began to be of especiall request in England for the puritie thereof, and was called Easterling monie, as all inhabitants of those parts were called Easterlings, and shortly after some of that countrie, skillful in mint matters and allaies, were sent for into this realme to bring the coine to perfection; which since that time was called of them sterling, for Easterling.'' --Camden.

In - other words - to boost the trade, needs to print nice silver coins.

OCTOBER 02, 2013 12:46 PM Tech experiment - 3D printing metal parts in conditions similar to Lunar surface

Technological experiment on the way to 3D printing metal parts on a lunar surface.

Direct Metal Evaporation And Condensation method.

- lunar regolith consists with some, non zero amount of metals;

- extraction of different metals, can be done by applying different temperatures;

- vacuum conditions allow to do this with precision;

- Direct Metal Evaporation will be done inside evaporation chamber directly from a lunar regolith, or from already extracted metals;

- Condensation of the evaporated metal can be done on even surface with temperature up to 200C;

- Evaporation chamber can be positioned by applying the 3D printing technique;

Other technique - condensation surface can be a cavity formed by applying parts to a surface, and evaporation chamber could be fixed till a moment when metal will fill up mold's cavity.

Well, it is slow, but it can be precise, and in a case of remote controlled from the earth time is not critical.

Promising part of the story - on the Earth and at zero-gravity the same technique allows to 3D print parts with better precision than existing technologies.

OCTOBER 11, 2013 07:39 PM Whiskers.

It is not what makes cats attractive in a spring time. That small forest is from tin, crystals grown in vacuum - "tin whiskers". Nothing attractive, if to keep in mind that 1mm whisker (grown in 1 hour) can short-circuit two electronic conductors on PCB.

To properly deal with it needs to cover PCB with polyurethane. Not just regular polyurethane, but - you know - with low outgassing in vacuum.

Funny looking, abstract pictures, anyway!

OCTOBER 13, 2013 12:24 PM Satellite communication encryption. Status – good!

In past was proved practical way to check strength of the encryption algorithms by setting the challenger via offering money for attempts to break encryption key.

I.e. see old "RSA factoring challenge" with prices up 100,000$ per breaking of algorithms used in HTTPS protocols.

We did set first challenger for our TOTAL encryption as 10 Lunar == 2030$. And nobody was able to decrypt message in 1.5 month in a case when source code was in open-source domain. It mean that strength of our satellite communication encryption is higher than 2000$. Let's do check again, but now with 100 Lunaro sterlings, which is equal to 20,000$.

Decrypt published message before November 10, 2013 and get that money.

Details, source code are on

Чтобы проветить возможностьи алгиритма крипторафирования на практике, применяется стандартный трюк - алгоритм публикуется вместе с неким зашифрованным сообщением. За расшифровку сообщения (нахождения ключа) предлагаются деньги. Лаборатория RSA криптования например с 1991 по 2007 год предлагала различные суммы до 100,000$ за взлом 1024 битного ключа.

Так как никто, за месяц, не смог расшифровать сообщение в нашем алгиритме криптования спутниковой коммуникации за 2000 долларов (извиняюсь 10 лунаро стерлингов), то опубликованный алгиритм "дороже" 2000.

Продолжим проверку алгоритма - объявление от 10 октября 2013 года - кто расшифрует опубликованное сообщение до 10 ноября 2013, Team PlanB выплачивает 100 лунных стерлингов, что в эквиваленте 20,000$ детали -

OCTOBER 16, 2013 10:36 PM Happy thanksgiving, Canada. Space Shuttle's Paradox.

Engineer who had made a mistake in design of complex systems, with a technical vital parameter twice less than was required, probably will not be an engineer again.

Best engineers,  designers, advisers, economists, managers, did the design of Space Shuttle's system with one of vital requirements - to reduce costs. On the first flight it was calculated to be 5000$  per 1kg on the orbit, at time of full fleets readiness - 1000$, and at year 2000 it should be 100$ per 1 kilogram of payload on Low Earth Orbit. Space shuttle retired, and closest business "SpaceX" asked (in 2011) from Team PlanB about 180,000$ per 1 kg on LEO.

Paradox - engineers who reached The Moon got wrong in the vital parameter of the system 1000 times, not just twice. 

"where is the difference?". 

Question is interesting from a practical point to find the solution- If for this invisible structure, with antimatter inside, will be interest to make any deal, then path to the moon will be opened again.

----------Translation for my friend Шура-------------------------

Парадокс Космического челнока.

Инженеры допустившие ошибку при проектировании технического параметра системы более чем в два раза (мост построенный до середины реки, например) обычно должны сменить род своей работы.

Лучшие инженеры и экономисты разработавшие систему Шаттл ошиблись в 1000 раз, а не вдвое (на первых полетах стоимость 1 кг доставки на орбиту должна была быть 5000$, после создания флота 1000$ и в 2000 году цена должна была упасть до 100 долларов). Парадокс.

Вопрос - "куда деваются деньги?" - практичен - если эта дырка согласится на какое либо соглашение, то будет реальный шанс долететь до луны.

OCTOBER 27, 2013 08:13 PM Titanium + Ag + graphene

Titanium 70% + Ag 20%+ graphene (low grade - not expensive) 10%+ 820C + vacuum 10mmHg- perfect mixture = left picture powder was pressed under 1424psi, on right two pictures was much less.


It is nice to have old, broken vacuum oven, impossible to fix.

Just fixed broken part, and - amazing results!

OCTOBER 30, 2013 01:42 PM Petroleum companies. The Haven?

When oil and gas company dies, its soul flies to a Titan, satellite of the Saturn, where it reincarnated into a new hydrocarbonate form of life.

Wow! May be that is a reason for petroleum companies to be involve in the space exploration!

Imagine headlines - "The First delivery of 10 gallons of gas directly from Saturn orbit into tank of a mobile car on historic highway 5." " Now you can drive from Vancouver to Los-Angeles without stop on gas stations".

Anyway interesting arcticle:

NOVEMBER 04, 2013 12:04 AM @ Sunday

As it is:


NOVEMBER 09, 2013 (From Google+ post) Main Mission Description

The primary mission will be realized by a planned direct flight to the Moon. A launch vehicle will carry the payload into Earth orbit. After separation from the launch vehicle, an automatic system check will take place, resulting in an “READY” messages being sent over a backup communications link to mission control, acknowledged the craft is ready to accept commands from mission control

At the same time, the craft starts an orientation sequence. The sequence includes a search for the Sun using a solar sensor. The direction vector to the Sun from the gyro platform data will be stored for a future use. If the solar sensor can not find the direction of the Sun, then orientation to Sun will be determined by the maximum current of one of the solar panels. The craft turns its solar panel to the Sun, to maximize the power harvest.

In all maneuvers, the craft uses an “adaptive attitude” system. The attitude system calculates 125/25 possible movements, performed by stepper motors, and records the resulting quaternions, representing spacial rotations, corresponding for each possible 125/25 moves. These values later allows a precise control of the direction of the craft, and to optimize require movements to reach orientation during flight.

The process to stop unknown rotations after separation, or after any "sleep" mode, will be done by a calculating the period of function, with measured voltage values, from the solar panel, or from the solar sensor. To stop rotation, which is equal to maximization of a measured period of the function, the first attempted movements will be the with biggest angle of rotation from 125 quaternion in the stored table.

After separation, and after "sleep" mode, on command from mission control and planned over backup communication, recorded GPS/GALELEO raw data will be will be transferred back to the mission control. Continuous recording of the raw signal is not necessary, and we only need to get 5-8 records from the navigation satellite of the past 30-60 minutes. That data will be analyzed in mission control, and orbit will be determined by trajectory simulation software running in distributed calculations mode. If the GPS system's raw data will be not available, the a raw stream of digitized data on L1 frequency will be recorded, with a later extraction of a raw navigational satellites coordinates and velocity data from recording on board.

After determining the orbit parameters, mission control sends a command for craft to find direction to the Earth. The craft then starts rotating itself with constant speed, and using an infrared sensors, detects edge of a Earth. Each crossing of the edge will be a signal to mark and store for processing the direction, provided by gyro-platform. The direction to the center of the Earth is determined via calculation. The adaptive attitude system has a special mechanism for tracking rotation movement without involving data from the gyro-platform. Rotation initiated from any still position can be reversed, and all movement commands can be repeated precisely in backward order by attitude controller. To confirm the period of the orbit, to preform orientation, craft perform rotation to conform Earth edge detection. It is not intended to keep constant track of the detection to the center of Earth.

When direction to the center of the Earth and direction to the Sun determined, mission control can a send sequence of orientation maneuvers to orient craft for communication session on the main communication frequency of 2.4GHz. The commands includes vectors in an on board system of coordinates and time marks for each vector. The attitude control linearly extrapolates vectors in the time between two time marks. If the linear extrapolation will be not possible, then mission control can reduce time between time marks. The session with ground station/mission control confirms the functionality of communication system. In these sessions, not only will the transferred telemetry data be sent, but also data from the imagining system.

From the communication session via main 2.4Ghz system, additional data will be collected, measurements of RF signal travel time from ground station to craft and back from craft to ground station. Two consequent "loop" measurement records can be used to determine orbit of the craft.

From that moment, all efforts will be concentrated on finding proper trajectory from LEO to the lunar surface. Some preliminary data about a possible orbit will be available. This data will be confirmed or adjusted based on measured data. Communication sessions will confirm functionality of the craft, and orbit parameters. If for some reason LEO will be lower than expected, then the effect of atmospheric drag in trajectory calculations needs to be adjusted.

Before first orbit correction payload adapter/ MLS adapter separated from a craft.

The first orbital correction firing will be the first task on the way to the Moon. The purpose of this firing is to allow the craft to stay on LEO orbit, before beginning the optimal trajectory to the Moon. Earth based calculations will calculate the direction and time of the impulse. The sequence of rotations and movements to perform this impulse will be the same as during the communication session. This orbital correction will be done 10 minutes after confirmation of the direction to the Sun, and the conformation of the direction to the center of the Earth. Before the firing, a command to point the craft's correction engine into the calculated direction will be executed. Rotation of the craft around the axis crossing the engine nozzle will be performed. This rotation is required to stabilize the craft during engine firing. In this operation, and similar, the pre-recorded 125/25 possible movement plays an essential part. After the impulse is done, pyro-bolts separate the part of the frame with the used shell of the engine. A decision to eject or keep this additional weight on board depends on the desired trajectory. The additional mass of the empty engines can be used to make the next impulse less in value. In any case, the stored quaternions of possible 125/25 rotations have to be re-evaluated because the difference in craft mass. During, the gyro platforms accelerometer will record values of accelerations to integrate measurements of the impulse.

The second LEO correction is planned after a longer duration in time after first one. In the time interval between these two corrections, the craft in orbit can perform numerous tests like confirmation of orientation, taking pictures of the Moon, and areas of the Earth. Here, the functionality of HD cameras can be verified, video can be transmitted. The duration of these session on LEO will be short: probably from 30 sec to 3 minutes maximum. HD video will be send over by portions, and 15 minutes of recording will require 2-3 days to transfer, using ground stations around the world. The second impulse makes an orbit correction before main burn impulse. Sequence of the movements will be the same as on the first correction: verification of the direction to the Sun, verification of the direction to the center of the Earth, orienting engine to the vector of firing, rotation around firing direction to stabilize craft in time of firing, and ignition at a specific moment of time. If the second correction brings craft closer to the Earth for a main burn, then air drug can slow down craft and second and third orbit will be impossible. After the second correction, there is a risk of de-orbiting after one or two orbit.

The main burn will occur approximately 1/2 orbit (30-40 min) after the second. Sequence will be: ejection of the shell of the used engine, stopping rotation (5 min), finding the direction to the Sun (5 min), finding the direction to the Earth (5 min), orienting craft's main engine to the firing direction (5min), rotation craft around firing direction (5min). This is 25 mins total in total which should be enough for 1/2 of the orbit. It will be desirable to have plenty of time been the second and main burns, but his depends on a chosen trajectory of the flight to the Moon .

After main impulse burn, the craft will be on trans lunar trajectory, there will be a short time window to collect as much information as possible for the trans lunar orbit determination. The GPS main, and GPS GALILEO front end RF system needs to record as much data as possible. GPS satellites flying at distances of 5 Earth diameters and their transmitted signal is beamed toward the direction of Earth. Ideal will be last, before leaving beam, recorded data. That max, far from the Earth, recordings will give max accuracy of "to-the-Moon " orbit determination. After that, on the way to the Moon it will only be possible to measure RF signal travel time. The error in orbital position at this part will be much bigger than on LEO. From that moment, until next orbit correction(s), an expected 2-3 days will pass. Another method of orbital determination is to measure 3 directions, each in different time - to the Sun, to the center of the Earth (which has good visibility on trans lunar trajectory), and to the center of the Moon (which will have bad visibility from a craft). Based on these measurements, and times, it will be possible to get 3 point on the orbit. Repeating the process can give another 3 coordinates. On the way to the Moon communication sessions become longer, and ground station shifts around the world become more permanent. Windows of communication sessions when 2 ground station simultaneously can see the craft are important in determining the orbit. Such events are planned with the pairs of Donetsk and Kazakhstan, as well as Hawaii and Cook Island. These pairs have near perpendicular connecting lines. This will allow to measure the RF signal time to better estimate the trans lunar trajectory.

The word "orbit" means something flying around another body without collision, and it assumes parameters like period, inclination, and 5 others values to be converted into to useful information numbers. Because in our simulation software, the orbit can be calculated from position and velocity vectors, we take this vector as a prime source of all decisions. For determination the orbit, we take in account value of impulses recorded by gyro platform accelerometer. Error in impulse's calculations will be less than error in position measurement by RF signal travel time. Trying in trajectory calculation / orbit's determination to match values for a position, we assumes the velocity is less voluntile. Distributed calculations can match the results, done by a series of measurements. The gyro-platform accelerometer records 3 axes of accelerations values.

The impulse # 4 on the way to the Moon is essential to choose a landing point. Coordinates of the landing can be different from planned because of imperfections of main impulse burn. The main impulse by itself does not brings craft to the Moon. Correction is mandatory, otherwise the craft will miss the Moon. Preliminary study showed that changing direction of the firing with a fixed firing time, gives the same flexibility on the landing point, but precise targeting is impossible because of the nature of fixed impulse engines. The calculated error was 600m on latitude and 300 on longitude. In the case of flight with help of a gravitation of sun and moon landing time will be at lunar night, best precision (less error) at targeting the landing point depend on lunar time. If time close to sunrise, then error will be bigger, if time close to "lunar midnight" precision is better. The ideal will be landing at Sunrise point (terminator line on the moon) in a flight mission with help of gravitation of the Sun and the Moon

On trans lunar trajectory the orientation of a craft become the challenge: only the direction to the Sun can be correctly determined. Two maneuvers are performed every half an hour: a picture of the Moon and a picture of the Earth, then the data is transfers to the Earth. The picture of the Earth (the Sun at this moment will perfectly eliminate the Earth) will accompaned with the old vector of the direction to the Earth (drifted value). At mission control adjustment value vector can be calculated and that correction will be delivered as a earh correction. Gyro-pplatform to perform such oparation needs to be running with 'zero-drift" presision of 0.5 degree per 30 min minimum.

Before correction of the trajectory based on orientation data from solar sensor the direction of the engine's firing can be set. This command will be next after rotation of the craft, and ignition in preset time. The integrated value of impulse will be recorded. The shell of the engine will be ejected. The acceleration vector data of the impulse will be transferred in a communication session to the Earth, in 20 minutes after craft stabilizes itself. The impulse value can be the last "reliable data” for that part of trajectory. Possibility of a additional correction on trans lunar trajectory can be considered instead first or second low earth orbit correction (it require different mount of the fixed impulse engine of the craft's frame). That fourth correction is less accurate. Available information to determine orbit will be direction vectors to of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, and time when vectors measurements was done. We hope that time measurements performed by the communication system can be useful during next 24 hours. The forth correction engine has to be ejected without use.

Next are the last moments before the landing on the Moon. The Moon will be close to the craft and it is possible to use the same sequence as on Earth orbit: to rotate the craft by detecting the edge of the Moon with 2 infrared sensors, and calculate the direction to the Sun by solar sensor. Next task is to orient the craft that the break solid state engine placed to the desired firing direction (direction vector is different from an vector direction of trajectory and lunar surface. The craft is rotated (by attitude system's last rotation wheel == hockey puck== face-off device) and engine ignition will now be based on data provided by a laser range finder. In a study provided in 2011, it was around 24km from the Earth surface and 4 sec before impact to the Moon . Precision of the ignition (in study) was 10ms, and error was around 300m on top of lunar surface. Burn of the last engine takes 20 seconds, and that time, when engine burns, it also ignite the pyro-bolts to prepare for the separation of the engine shell from the landing craft (6 kg in mass) consisting of the rover and impact shield. Rotation of the rover and impact shield will be compensated by carbon fiber spring, released on separation.

Calculations done in 2011, showed that landing point can have error in longitude of 600 m, latitude of 300 m, speed 10-15m/s. In 2011 study the expected landing time was 6-24 hours before Sun rise.

At ignition of the brake engine, the HD camera starts to record video.

From the moment of landing, the mission will be moved to a mobility phase.

NOVEMBER 09, 2013 (From Google+ post) Test Mission Designong

Before attempting to perform the main mission flight, the decision was made to use nano satellite type mission flight. For such a test mission, there will be the following key goals:

First – the orientation of a craft/satellite needs to be calculated with the precision of 0.3 degrees. If the is an error over 0.3 degrees, than the Moon is missed. If the nano satellite will achieve this precision, then it will be a green light for a craft itself.

Second – communication over two the channels (main and backup) has to be proved capable of transferring data to and from ground station(s).

Third – the requirements for the satellites needs to be passed, prior to placing a satellite inside a launch vehicle, and long before signing launch agreement. Passing ground tests is a good step, especially in an unknown territory, from the cradle of civilization, to the lunar surface.

Forth – ground station communication has to be developed and tested (ideally it will communicate with this satellite on low Earth orbit, in compact form, before the ground station in the form of a rover is sent to the Moon).

After brief consideration a decision was made – to try. As a result, trajectory parameter calculations were tailored for a proper low orbit (an essential part on the path to the Moon). Then another development was done - to create a working gyro platform.

Subsystems on the rover will be the same as on the nano-satellite: a camera unit (2 units looking in opposite directions), a gyro unit, a main computer with storage of data, a Communication unit, a backup communication unit, a power plant unit, an attitude control/orientation unit. If the development of such components will be successful, then the software can be re-used on a rover.

Backup communication: it is better to be capable of communicating with the nano-satellite even it is out of ground station reach. The is a decision to use existing satellite communication. Modems with such function appeared on the market over the last years: the restriction are temperature requirements. To overcome these, needs to place the modem into a sealed epoxy box and traverse connectors outside the improvised compartment. Power requirements on transmitter will be 1.5 Watt instead of 10 Watts for the main mission.

Main communication will be at 2.4GHz. This band is designated as a hopping frequency band: as long as the transmitter does not stay on the same frequency channel, there is no license required to operate on this frequency, and no restriction on antenna with power up to 4 Watts (in Canada) or 1 Watts in US. There are recently developed OEM amplifiers modules for this band, with transition power up to 1-2Watts. The key module for a 2.4 GHz transmit and receive is just regular a Bluetooth device. The software required: to be able to do error corrections on at long distances, with the "standard" BT repeating packet, or "standard" send/receive ACK/NACK, is not a practical way to do communications.

The power plant harvests as much energy as possible from the solar panel, and stores it in 6 capacitors for the test mission. High volume capacitors were chosen instead of batteries because of their better performance in temperature ranges. Range in temperature of -50 C to +125 C makes it suitable for the flight. The power plant needs to check which solar panel performs better, and what unit needs to get most power, then switch the source of power to discharge the capacitor's unit, delivering the power to the required unit. Performance of the power plant will be the main “source” of the information for a rover's redesign. The test flight of the power plant will be an ideal test of the latest harvesting techniques, and latest development of the solar panels. It was chosen to postpone the development of the power plant as much as possible. Industry developments in solar power harvesting sector is booming (something we can not say about the space industry), and waiting for a flight for one two years can allow to use new technologies during the flight. This approach is risky - in the space industry it is assumed that design of any system has to be frozen 1-2 years before a flight. Engineers responsible for the integration satellites into a flight vehicle can be reluctant to accept such an approach.

The camera module can be a prime element for orientation – it will not only deliver pictures, but the software in the main computer can detect the horizon and that detection can help to calculate the direction to the center of the Earth. The camera needs to be stripped from of optics, and a pin hole will be the main optical element. The quartz glass on the sensor has to be drilled to make a hole to avoid breaking in a vacuum. Such a system will work along side a solar sensor and infrared celestial body detector.

The orientation and attitude control module will have 3 small stepper motors (instead of 4 on the rover). The task for the modules will be to adapt rotation to keep required orientation calculated by gyro platform module.

The gyro - platform was the main development of 2011, we are happy with how it is working.

The frame of the satellite, according a specifications of a nano-satellite, has to be built within specific standards. On the market now there are a lot of different frame and nano-satellite kits available. Team Plan B decided to build our own frame: an antenna for a communication module has to be deployed, this is non a standard configuration. One of our partners, Jetasonic Technologies Inc, a company, based in Coquitlam BC, Canada, developed such a frame.

On the ground station, one of the tasks performed by the rover on its main to the lunar surface is to orient the antenna to the Earth for communication sessions. If we were to combine ground station with the rover (the rover is the same as the ground station), then both tasks designed of the rover and design of the ground station will be achieved simultaneously.

A test mission is considered essential by our team before any attempt to reach the Moon. It is premature to talk, to plan, or to build anything before the mission can be successful.

NOVEMBER 09, 2013 (From Google+ post) Landing areas (main and backup)

Main landing point S2E15, and two backup landing points S2.1312E15.7745 and S1.08E15.44 (pictures from LRO/LROC)

NOVEMBER 11, 2013 (From Google+ post) Test mission description

The Nano-satellite will be discharged of all high volume capacitors, before being placed into a container, mounted on the launch vehicle. During design, it was was assumed that the power switch creates a short-cut for the electrical circuit, to satisfy the requirements of a Nano-satellite class launch.

After reaching orbit, Nano-satellite will be separated from the other nano satellites in the container, and the power switch will disconnect the short-cut circuit. At the same time, a small solar cell will start to charge the high volume capacitor of the main microprocessor. The charge used in the operation be ready after 30 minutes, to allow main microprocessor to run for next 1 minute at full speed, or with reduced speed continuously. Changing the speed from full to slow will be done by the microprocessor itself.

After main microprocessor reached its functionality, it will switch on the power plant microprocessor. The power plant will control attitude control and the orientation subsystem, to maximize current of the solar panel(s). It is the task of the power plant microprocessor to determine the orientation based on best solar power harvesting. It is not required on this step to orient or rotate the Nano-satellite to face one of the surfaces to the best illumination by the Sun.

After power storage, consisting of high volume capacitors, achieves some level (approximate 0.25 of max power), all subsystems of the Nano-satellite are powered and self-tested. This gives the command for opening the helical antenna. The antenna does not need to be opened if the Nano-satellite launches with an already extended antenna. In this case the Nano-satellite will use two units inside a container instead of one.

3 nichrome wires will be burned, one after another, and the antenna will be released. To extent the antenna to a working position, the attitude control and orientation subsystem will perform a prerecorded turn to lock the antenna in a fixed position, by two permanent magnets. A backup communication system antenna will be mounted on the opposing side of the helical antenna's reflector. From that moment, the CubeSat is ready for backup communication with mission control, and to send a message "I AM OK".

In a case of antenna opening failure, or failure of locking the antenna in fixed position, the backup communication will be ready to send messages to mission control.

The backup communication is performed using an Orbit Communication M-10 modem. It is not certified to communicate on aircraft, but Orbit Communication representatives confirmed that on-board a satellite, it was used in the past successfully. Communication of the Orbit Communication M-10 modem is initiated by applying power to its power pins, performed by the power plant subsystem. Then it needs to monitor the signal on the "satellite detected" pin. That pin provides detection of an Orbit Communication satellite in range of the M-10 modem. Each modem has unique identification. After sensing the Orbit Communication satellite, it is possible to send a 140 byte message to mission control, confirming status of the Nano-satellite on the orbit.

After sending the "READY" message, it can be 15-20 minutes before the Orbit Communication satellite reaches the ground station, to deliver the message to Earth. In this time Nano-satellite will collect raw GPS signals from two global navigation subsystems, and 5 different raw GPS satellites, collecting position and velocity together with time stamps. This will be next message to be transferred via backup communication subsystem.

Mission control can send commands to Nano-satellite using Orbit Communication's infrastructure, but the main task on this stage will be to process raw GPS data from the Nano-satellite, and attempt to determine orbit using raw data and trajectory calculation software.

After the parameters of the orbit are determined it will be possible to make an attempt to communicate by a ground station. Trajectory calculation software will determine the time and window of visibility for each ground station, and from the ground station, calculate the sequence of orientation vectors to be performed by the antenna of the ground station. The same calculation will produce angles of orientation of the Nano-satellite.

Now it is the task for the orientation and attitude control subsystem to achieve and hold orientation of the Nano-satellite. First there will be an attempt to use the solar sensor. The attitude control and orientation subsystem will try all possible movements performed by the 3 stepper motors, in all combinations. The gyro-platform will provide quaternions of rotations after each possible movements are performed by 3 stepper motors. The values of quaternions will be stored for later use. A period of the function of voltage, measured from one of the four infrared solar sensors will be performed, and movement by stepper motor will be used to maximize period. After a period reaches same predetermined value, there will be fine tuning, as all four infrared sensors have to produce the same photo-voltage value, which will be an indication of the Sun's position. That orientation is stored by the gyro platform, as a direction to the Sun. The next step will be attempting to detect, by two infrared sensors, the edge of the Earth. Here, the Nano-satellite will be put into a slow spin. Values from the two IR sensors will be recorded. A peak in the values will indicate the edge of the Earth. The orientations at the time of 4 peaks will give 4 vectors, enough to determine direction to the Earth. By knowing the time when direction to the Earth is detected, orbit parameters, and solar direction will give all data to orient Nano-satellite for communication session with the ground station. Indication to mission control that Nano-satellite is ready orient for a session is conformed by sending 2 vectors: the Solar direction, and the center of Earth's direction, and the time when that direction was found.

Mission control calculates the angles, and sequences of the antenna's directions based on Solar and Earth orientation. That sequence is send to the Nano-satellite using Orbit Communication infrastructure. The sequence of directions for the ground station will be sent encrypted, over internet. Both objects ready to perform the main task and main test for the mission.

The Nano-satellite orients itself based on Solar direction, and center of Earth direction (achieved automatically) and sequences of direction vectors transferred from mission control previously. The ground station (which is mechanically equivalent to a lunar rover) will turn it's antenna to the Nano-satellite. Communication session will be performed by a 2.4 GHz communication subsystem. All waiting data from Nano-satellite (like images made by low resolution camera, and HD video) will be delivered to the ground station. If the communication session is successful, than it is a green light for the main mission to the Moon.

Some additional tests will be performed. The ground station will be configured to a compact version. Here, the mobility of the rover will be stripped by removing part of the frame with one wheel, then another wheel will be removed, and the stepper motor shaft will be mounted on horizontal rotation holder. In such configuration one stepper motor is controlling horizontal rotation, and the antenna mount is controlled the second stepper motor. Software on the ground station has to adapt itself for 2 instead of 3 degrees of freedom, and properly orient the antenna for the next communication session with the Nano-satellite.

In another test, the communication system (located on a back side of the reflector of the antenna) will be switched to a 1mW ground station transmitter. Here the Nano-satellite must support the communication system because its low noise amplifiers must be capable of supporting communication.

Finally the communication system will be switched to 1 low noise amplifier, where the BT module with one 12.5 dB low noise amplifier will be capable of picking up signals from a 400 km distance.

NOVEMBER 14, 2013. (From Google+ post) The decision about GLXP Milestone prizes.

After some consideration Team PlanB decided do not to participate in GLXP Milestone prizes. But because all documents was already prepared you can look at them – all available under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Lunar Mission Concept description

Imaging Subsystem, Development and Verification Plan

Imaging Subsystem, Technical Risk Assessment

Imaging subsystem, Media Plan

Landing subsystem. Development and Verification plan.

Landing subsystem, Technical Risk Assessment

Landing subsystem, Media Plan

Mobility Subsystem, Development and Verification Plan

Mobility Subsystem, Technical Risk Assessment

Mobility subsystem, Media Plan

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) Some picture impact shield

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) Craft

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) craft with payload adapter

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) craft at TLO (after 3 Solid motors ejected)

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) craft at Transfer GSO (Alternative flight path)

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) face-off device (hockey puck / attitude control rotation wheel), and laser range finder

NOVEMBER 18, 2013 11:52 PM Measurements. Algorithm's strength.

September we did set cash challenge with a prize 10 Lunaro == 2000$.

Nobody did decryption of the message on 10th of October.

In comparison with RSA factoring challenge 2000$ prize equal to find two prime numbers p & q such as n=pq with n length == 100 bit (key length) known.

We increased prize in October to 20000$ == 100 Lunaro silver sterling coins.

On 10th of November deadline nobody decrypted the message.

That mean the "Total Encryption" algorithm's strength is better that RSA 640 - (encryption used not long time ago on HTTPS servers) with length of the key 640 bits.

Today Team PlanB increase prize again - up to 500 Lunaro coins (100,000$) - our goal to prove that the "Total encryption" (in comparison with RSA) is better than 1024 bit RSA encryption. Details:

В сентябре был объявлен приз в 10 Лунаро (2000 Канадских долларов) - первый расшифровавший сообщение получал 10 серебрянных монет. Смысл конкурса сравнить алгоритм криптования "total encryption" с алгоритмом RSA. (RSA тоже объявлял конкурс и приз в 2000 баксов выдавался за раскрытие ключа длинной 100бит.)

Никто не забрал приз 10 октября и поэтому сумма была увеличена до 100 Лунаро (20,000). И снова никто за месяц не смог выиграть. С одной стороны это означает что алгоритм проиблизительно равен RSA-640. А с другой стороны нужно продолжать сравнение - сейчас приз равен 500 лунаро (100,000) до 10 ноября - кто может - расшифровывайте-

NOVEMBER 20, 2013 01:44 PM Measurements. Comparison of two different paths to the moon.

Original approach was : non optimized LEO -trans lunar trajectory - correction impulse - brake engine - landing.

That require 250kg on LEO, with price tag 6,000,000$.

Alternative route - trans GSO flight, then trans lunar flight - brake engine - landing.

That can save tremendous weight (40kg instead of 250kg, with price around 2,000,000$), but data for trans GSO orbits (TLE) are not available to us. As a result it is hard to do any real estimations, speculations only. If somebody can share information about any past samples (preferable 3-4) of trans GTO orbits, we can be really appreciated for such data. Many thanks for Alexander Mikhailov for a tip about GSO orbits.

Спасибо Саше Михайлову за подсказку о полетах на геостационарные орбиты.

Такие полеты регулярны - как следствие цены более стабильные, и зная правильную переходную орбиту (и подстраивая ее к транс лунному перелету) возможно обойтись 40 кг вместо 250кг на LEO. это может резко удешивить весь проэкт с 6 лимонов до 2. Но - как всегда но - нужены образцы старых орбит - непонятно где их взять. Другая проблема - как разговаривать с хозяином спутника летящего на ГСО. Хотя вторая загвоздка не нова - это как на чемпионате мира по боксу - тежеловес ни когда не встречается с наилегчайшим весом.

NOVEMBER 21, 2013 04:47 PM Messages to be printed on the lunar surface. December (in two weeks) I’ll start to print the wheel's spokes for the rover. I need the list of all of our classmates. 16 tires/spokes on the wheel. On each tire can be printed one or two names. Total (with two wheels) == 32 messages / names. Two or three spokes/tires are reserved for investors. Offer is non expensive, but they are picky and do not wish to buy messages. After the discount - one dollar for one message per year, at once, for the entire warranty time.

Therefore, on December I need a list == one name for one tire of our 1976 school class. The printing area on the tire is 1cm x 4cm. The warranty time of the message to stay on lunar surface (to take an account the modern state of space exploration) - one million years. One or two tires has to be reserved for our teachers - their investment into us were priceless.

Moonwalker. (Alex Dobrianski)


Response from Donetsk-

List of the names - (Needs to ask Igor which last name he want to place)

1. Анциферов Валерий
2. Белоусов Игорь
3. Бибик Юрий
4. Васильченко Игорь
5. Геженко Инна
6. Гефтер Валерий
7. Добрянский Александр
8. Елифёрова Галина
9. Кириченко Константин
10. Коган Елена
11. Краснопёрова Ольга
12. Кубарева Марина
13. Лившиц Олег
14. Чайковский (Мальч) Игорь
15. Любашевский Геннадий
16. Милославский Михаил
17. Пашутин Александр
18. Писарев Виталий
19. Плахотный Сергей
20. Плетнёва Оксана
21. Пугач Владимир
22. Сальников Николай
23. Серезентинов Геннадий
24. Скирка Ольга
25. Скокова Валентина
26. Степанель Нина
27. Стешенко Сергей
28. Хасин Станислав
29. Чернявская Наталья
30. Чумакова Светлана
31. Шамович Людмила
32. Шпак Александр
33. Ярёмич Алексей
Хурина Мина Львовна
Белоусова Ирина Викторовна
Борц Илья Яковлевич

ON NOVEMBER 25, 2013 04:28 PM Space education.

Wow! It is really amazing –

Future is in a “Space education” – 100 colleges and academies, 10 classes in each per year. To pass, each cadet does need to build a nano-satellite. Total, 1000 nano-satellites,- just 1 ton == one launch of a non-big rocket. But, 20,000 young people, experienced in building satellites by their own hands, each year!

It is THE FUTURE of the space exploration.

Hats off!

Таки да - это будущее!

100 коледжей - 10 классов в каждом, на орбиту нужно вывести 1000 нано-спутников по одному килограмму 10см х 10см х 10см, всего одна тонна на орбите. НО, какое РЕШЕНИЕ - 20,000 молодых людей умеющих своими руками собирать спутники - это гарантировоно через пять лет 100 Фон Браунов, Годдартов Королевых, Чертков.

Снимаю шляпу.

ON NOVEMBER 28, 2013 02:24 PM Last chance to get Lunaro Sterling Coin 2013.

2013 coin will be available till 31 December 2013.:

月unaro Sterling Silver. Coin, 28.7g; .925 silver; 0.85 ASW (0.85 troy ounce Actual Silver Weight); diameter 40.4 mm; thickness 3.0 mm; edge with the text "legal tender". Subject: Google Lunar XPRIZE. Obverse: nominal "1 月unaro", with text "Age of Aquarius" designer: Yuri Savenkov. Reverse: The far side of the Moon, with 28 stars, year 2013, designer: Universe. Coin produced by 3D printing technology only. Mintage: 545 (collectable).

Coin was designed to help space devotees-enthusiasts to reach their goals.

see details on -

ON DECEMBER 02, 2013 12:14 PM Measurements. Thermal regulation of nano satellite with Peltier elements

Adjusting the temperature inside the nano satellite. Model. Measurements. The temperature difference measurements. Pelter's elements used as a passive regulator raises the temperature inside the controlled object. Active switch on and off Pelter element allows a use simple algorithm to regulate temperature.

Регуляция температуры внутри нано спутника. Модель. Замеры. Разница температуры. Пельтьер элемент включенный как пассивный регулятор поднимает температуру внутри регулируемого объекта. Активное включение и выключение Пельтьер элемонтов позволяет иметь простой алгориитм по регулированию температуры.

ON DECEMBER 04, 2013 04:45 PM Biggest 3D printing factory in USA

Shapaways factory is trying different business approaches to get new customers. Ponoko tech support are trying to fulfill simple requests. And etc.

And Biggest in The World Minnesota's located 3D factory even did not bother to put advertisements - they just has contracts, and their millions dollars lines of 3D printers are busy with "manufacturing".

Больше, про бизнес и толкаемый им технический прогресс, пусть мне не заливают.

ON DECEMBER 08, 2013 11:13 PM New Titanium alloys for 3D printing.

From left to right.

Titanium 90% Silver 10% = density 4.7

Titanium 75% Copper 25% = density 5.1

Copper 75% Tin 25% (bronze) = density 7.8

Looks like now rover can be fully 3D printed from titanium. It will be less than hundreds euro per 1 cubic centimeter of a titanium and printer will be open source Mendel.

Wow! I do not believe myself.

p style="text-decoration: underline"> ON DECEMBER 11, 2013 02:23 AM Titanium alloys investigation

That (Ti75%Cu25%) is perfect sample - strongest and solid practically without cavities.

That (Ti90%Ag10%) has cavities - mostly because of low silver. Probably with 20-25% it could be solid, more heavy and strong. Longer time in oven (around 820C) can help to reduce patches of not solidified grains.

- That is 2000 years old technology sample (nothing new in this world) - solid, strong, and non expensive (0.5-0.8 cents per cm^3). Probably that can bring bronze age back to houses.

And needs to find the (easy) way to measure all mechanical parameters of alloys.

Exruder needed

Existing paste extruders has that limitations:

- Material for printing limited by a syringe size (10-20 -200 cm^3)

- It is hard to make the small diameter extrusion - viscosity is high.

Probably needs to make the screw extruder. Dry powder is delivered by vibration via the plastic tube (thus less inertia parts for positioning mechanism). Once debugged using dry powder, so through the central part (with ball valve) delivers pressurized water with PVA - water. Ratio liquid / powder adjusted by (a) turning speed of the screw, and (b)the water's pressure. Small 100$ desktop compressor with an automatic pressure control will be preferable.

For the beginning the mold 3D printed from the plastic (for extruder) can be made. Then next step will be to 3D print the extruder itself.

Design with two extruders can allow combining two metals with different heat conductivity and strength.

see more on -

ON DECEMBER 11, 2013 06:21 PM Measurements (Episode 4,5,6)

- How strong satellite encryption algorithms? better than RSA 1024

- How documents creation process slow down design and development? 14 times (in our case)

- How many impulses needs to reach the moon? No measurements of the orbit == no answer.

On going development:

- distributed calculations of the orbit.

- material proved for printing metal parts on desktop 3D printer = titanium alloys.

ON DECEMBER 18, 2013 02:19 PM 12 chairs. “You know, my friend, that project reminds me …”

2011. My friend :-) “You know, my friend, Alex, you project reminds me the movie “Despicable Me” especially the part with boy’s dreams about flying to the moon.” Thanks you, my friend – Thanks you very much. Finally I did watch that movie. That reminds me:

... Киса знаете кого этот стул мне напоминает – нашу жизнь! Нас топят, а мы выплываем, но никого это не радует....

(Old story, - two companions are chasing 12 chairs. In one chair there are hidden diamonds. Partners are watching floating nearby gutted chair (previous unsuccessful attempt to find treasure). Monolog- “…You know, my friend, that chair reminds me of our life. We’re also floating with the tide ...)

Другой дружбан – сначала культурно напоил – а затем осторожно намекнул посмотреть фильм “Елки палки”. Посмотрел!

Открываю рубрику – "Дорогой друг, вы как лунатик напоминете мне ..."

I am opening the rubric – “You know, my friend, that lunatic reminds me...”

All similarities are welcome!

watch and enjoy sound track -

ON DECEMBER 24, 2013 02:35 PM measurements planning for Ti Cu alloy

There are limitations what we can choose as manufacturing facility for rover's parts. Best solution is to make parts in-house, but that require metallurgy and 3D printing at hand. Measuring strength of alloys is one of "must be" part.

ON DECEMBER 31, 2013 08:12 PM Happy New Year 2014!