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Year 2012. События за год 2012

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ON FEBRUARY 06, 2012 09:57 PM Report for my friend Alex (Shura):

. . Yep – forget to tell. Yesterday after everybody fell a sleep, I finally set Gyro’s drift to zero. One problem after two months solved. Trick was (except usual == program’s bug) was in mathematic –

- calculate rotation using quaternion for a period of X seconds (QCorr0);

- then any next X seconds apply to calculated rotation complimentary of original correction (QCorr0)

Interesting results - on any next X seconds rotation floats, and at the end of X seconds period rotation jumps to 0. Function of a quaternion from a time btw "quantum jumps" is a 3D WAVE.

If to look just at function cos_angle_devide_by2(t) – the wave (according your explanation) should be depend / related to a temperature. But if to look at rotation_vector(t) then there is a 3D wave, and it is possible to get characteristics like amplitude, period and etc. It is nice!

Truly speaking correct way will be to calculate period, store quaternion as a function(t) and apply periodic correction to measured results.

Now I understand, what in physics means “quantum theory”. For example: exist object, some object. It is possible to measure some parameters of it and parameters are projections to a Cartesian’s basis, then measured parameters needs to be extrapolate (interpolate) by linear function. Favorite by physics linear function is a zero function, i.e. the velocity of brick remains constant (bricks sits on the roof still) unless the brick is acted upon by somebody hands (force). But in some circumstances measured function is not sits still by makes periodic jumps like flee, then physics applies super-puper-complicated mathematics (usually this is a calculation of the average value) and object labeled as “object-with-quantum-nature”. To investigate “quantum” “jumps” in a function builds big-acccelera-colliders, and new database of measures creates. Shape of correction to zero functions(t) <= => quaternion(t) analyzed (period, amplitude, phase), and for distinguish patterns set of labels (electr-positr-prot-bos-on) was created (compare: ancient scientists inTibet used “Om” label). Last stage of learning curve – lyrics writers capable to understand all of that (theoretic scientists) writes books or songs - “From the maelstrom of knowledge - Into labyrinth of doubt - Frozen underground ocean - Melting, nuking on my mind”.

There is no ZERO function. Only abstract ZERO, like Picasso’s painting. Zero function is when we stated / labeled “Do not touch!” “Hands off from the object!”. In real world brick lives its own life, and choose by itself target’s head.

Such a childish explanation of a quantum theory by applying a quaternion’s mathematics. May be I am wrong – that’s what I am usually do.

ON FEBRUARY 06, 2012 10:09 PM Translation: Report for my friend Alex (Шура) :

Да - забыл сказать, вчера после того как все заснули, я вывел дрейф Гироскопа на ноль - одна из проблем ушла - трюк (кроме как обычно-программистской ошибки) был в следующей математике -

- считаю кватернион за Х секунд (эквивалентно усреднению)

- затем каждые Х секунд прикладываю обратный кватернион

В течении последующих каждых Х секунд значение плавает, а затем происходит прыжок в ноль. Причем значение функции кватерниона между квантовыми скачками - ТРЕХМЕРНАЯ ВОЛНА!!!

Если смотреть на косинус половинного угла – то волна должна по твоему обяснению – быть-зависеть от температуры. А если смотреть на вектор, то он колеблется, не сильно, но колебания! – это же прелэсть! - можно считать период – амплитуду и т.д и т.п.

Правильно будет вычислить период, запомнить квантерионую функцию от времени и вносить коррекцию в каждый репортируемый результат (не в то что меряется, а именно в репортируемый).

Теперь наконец-то понял, что физики понимают под квантовой теорией - существует некий объект - мерять его поведение можно отслеживая ортогональные проэкции, затем поведение объекта хотят эхтраполировать (интерполировать) линейной функцией (любимая линейная функция у физиков это ноль - как там - кирпич сохраняет состояние покоя или движется равномерно и прямолинейно если его никто не лапает руками и не сбрасывает с крыши) - а-н нет-с, не тут-то было -не получается линейная- тогда применят супер-пупер сложнейшую математику (обычно усреднение) и говорят- Во! смотрите – вот состояние покоя, а вот наш НОЛЬ. А ноль как из песни, - ”...разбег, толчек, полет и два двенадцать...” – ноль (объЭкт) обзывается новым словом – не простой ноль (объект), а квантообразный - вбухивают серьезные бабки на что-то ускоряющее, для изучения подробной природы скачков, – опять меряют – если корректирующая на ноль функция имеет определенную форму, период, амплитуду – клеют погоняло – элементарная частица элек-позит-нютро-мю-кю-боз-ОН, точно ОН (хотя тибетцы говорят ОМ) и просят лириков от физики (теоретиков) расписать все грамотно - получаем песенку - “From the maelstrom of knowledge - Into labyrinth of doubt - Frozen underground ocean - Melting, nuking on my mind”.

Нуля нет. Есть абстракцая нуля. Подаразумевается что ноль, это когда ничего не далают с объектом. Ноль это табличка "не хапайте руками". На самом деле кирпич живет сам по себе, ему все равно, и он самостоятельно выбирает хорошего человека. Такое утрированое понимание квантовой механики. Может я не прав - а я почти всегда не прав.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:16 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update, Introduction.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:17 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update, Rover.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:19 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update. Software.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:29 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update. CubeSat as a testing stage for a Lunar mission.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:30 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update. Moon as a platform for a business.

ON APRIL 11, 2012 02:43 PM Reply to Rick.

Hi Rick, I can not use any available kits. Bunch of reasons.

For power plant it will be:

(a) Solar panels – I tried 3 types - http://download.siliconexpert.com/pdfs/2009/5/10/7/25/59/pwrflm_/manual/297774%20oem%20flysheet_p1.pdf

Then http://ixapps.ixys.com/DataSheet/20110302-KXOB22-12X1-DATA-SHEET.pdf

then monocrystalline http://www.siliconsolar.com/2500ma-1-38w-commercial-solar-cell.html

Triply junction is not available for me now – but everybody tells me that is a best choice.

Question is (my question) which one will be better performed on a orbit – I am interesting in a particular case – how they will be deteorate under solar wind at least on a low earth orbit. I do not have such information for those solar panels – looks like I’ll have to place all of them on CubeSat to check performance against charged particles.

Solar panels in my case has to be combined to get 3.5-4 Volts – then I’ll use voltage regulator http://cds.linear.com/docs/Datasheet/1761sff.pdf to get 2.5 volts – I tried different regulators – this one has low switch-off current and require additional tantalum capacitor. It is 100ma output current.

Then super capacitor http://products.nichicon.co.jp/en/pdf/XJA046/e-jc692.pdf main energy storage. Or: http://media.digikey.com/pdf/Data%20Sheets/Nesscap%20URL%20links/ESHSR-(0003,0005,0010,0025,0050)C0-002R7pdf.pdf . I did not made final choice – second one is better for temperature range, (in a case of second capacitor needs to use 2.7 V voltage regulator same type). If temperature will be high then 85 – then capacitors still perform, but life-time shrinks.

Capacitors will be inside compartment – it is not a compartment truly speaking – epoxy/carbon shell with another epoxy as a sealant and thermal conductor. Voltage regulator will be inside compartment – Quiescent current 20mka will help to fight low temperature. Layer of gold (gold leafs) will protect form high temperature external. Amount of layer will be determined by experiments in vacuum chamber.

(b) each solar panel split to a groups with 4V - 100ma capacity (I did not find suitable voltage regulator with high current but this is advantage not disadvantage). Grid of voltage regulators connects each group to capacitors. Control of a grid performs by http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/41341E.pdf it monitors voltage on individual group and capacitors and switch-on/off desired regulator to charge capacitors evenly. PIC16f72x can perform that task autonomously with transferring performance results to a central storage unit (backup computer)

(c) - unknown / no tested part is a bust-up voltage – I did not choose/ tested any suitable – (http://www.micrel.com/_PDF/mic2250.pdf http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/21989a.pdf http://www.analog.com/static/imported-files/Data_Sheets/ADP3041.pdf http://cds.linear.com/docs/Datasheet/1945fa.pdf some of them does not has correct temperature range, some of them does not has correct output current, some does not have low shutdown current). For bust I need 3.3V 5V, and 12/9V. 3.3V can be 100ma (power for microprocessors), 5V -1 amp pick 1 sec, and for 12/9V needs to have 1.5amp (backup communication) pick 2 sec. For main communication module 1WT transmission – I do not have requirements yet.

(d) – grid boost-up regulators connects of capacitors from one side and then distributed to a power suckers – (1) backup/main storage/camera unit processor(first power level) (2) all another processors unit (second level of power consumption). (3) orientation system, (4) transmitters/receivers. Looks like distribution can work be controlled by same power control unit. If it will be not enough pins on PIC16F72x then may be I’ll put another power’s plant control unit – for controlling distribution – but I did not made decision yet. Gathering power control unit will have two powers – one based on six http://www.clare.com/home/pdfs.nsf/0/4EC381FBC6760F3585256E6900649D38/$file/CPC1822.pdf for power consumption 1mka, and then power plant charged at least one capacitor d it will switch to use power from that capacitor.

(e) all capacitors discharged at launch – simple shot cut resistor grid combined with remove-before-flight tag will do CubeSat requirements job. Six CPC1822N (for power plant) will be also shot cut by CubeSat switch. No power until deployment as it specs.

That all what I have today for a power plant.

Regards,

Alex Dobrianski.

ON APRIL 12, 2012 12:29 PM Reply to Jenisha

Hi Jenisha

Question that I am interesting based on (page 481 book by Boris Chertok reference http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4110/vol3.pdf in Russian version it is better to read but anyway):

"During Molniya-1’s third and subsequent spaceflights a rapid degradation of the photovoltaic converters (FEP) was detected.(33) It was the manifestation of a little known effect of irradiation when passing through near-Earth radiation belts. Another factor affecting the performance of the solar arrays was thermal cycling—a temperature differential from plus 120 degrees in the Sun to minus 180 degrees in the shade during each orbit.

In 1966, to reduce degradation and extend the life of the solar arrays, Lidorenko’s institute introduced a silica glass coating to the working surfaces of the photovoltaic cells. We had to give in and increase the mass, but we had some leeway there, thanks to the efforts of Dudnikov’s designers. Additional solar arrays shaped like special pleated curtains were installed, which made them heavier. When needed, the curtains opened and fresh elements that hadn’t been harmed by radiation or thermal cycling were put into operation."

Because I do not have access to good solar cell – I need to presizley know how available to me cell will perform. According Boris Chertok in one month I can loose half of the power on a Lunar mission.

Thanks for information about Sensormetrix. They are out of my reach. I have to developed everything by myself.

Regards

Alex Dobrianski

ON JUNE 06, 2012 01:51 PM Communication range testing.

Well, communication protocol done. Now core BT module (cubesat/lunar modem) is capable to work in modes:

(a) 3 frequencies listening; 3 frequencies for transmit; 2 from 3 majority bits correction, bits shifting correction fix for preamble lost; synchronization of a frequency switch; lost switch frequency correction; adjust frequency on temperature drift.

(b) 1 frequency listening; 1 transmitting; the same functionality as on (a) but switching is disabled.

(c) 1 frequency listening; 3 transmitting; again same functionality; that will be main mode for a cubesat and lunar probe.

(d) 3 frequency listening; 1 transmitting; difference from (a) that it will be 3 receivers monitoring 3 frequency but transmitting goes over 1 frequency. That mode will be on ground station – to maximize probability for cubesat/lunar probe to get less noisy data;

In mode (d) instead of processing and fixing packets inside micro processor data will be tunneled to a PC and fix of data can be done locally on a more powerful desktop, or distributed to network of a computers for simultaneously error correction (for such process can be used screen savers with instant win notification for a Team Plan B supporters).

Mode (c) allow to have transfer data from cubesat/lunar probe without delay for frequency switch synchronization. That can increase data transfer from 50 kbit/sec to 70-80. Transfer date for upload is not critical. Another reserve is tweaking core module from 250kbs to 1mbs – that can give increase of a speed up to 160kbs for download data from cubesat/lunar probe, for sure such increase will require more computer power after ground station processing, and will make a sense only with good network of a “fixing” packets screen savers.

Why to invent a communication protocol? Usually 99% of a time of software development spend (lost) on following standards. Needs to do something fast == ignore standards and write from scratch (see code at http://www.adobri.com/misc/STM_BT/STM_BTCM.c).

Range test, two helical antennas, one for Cubesat prototype 3 turns http://www.shapeways.com/model/322768/small_2_4ghz_antena__for_cubesat_.html?gid=sg85851, another for a ground station with 1/3 of a turns on 3D printed antenna http://www.shapeways.com/model/322767/2-4ghz-antena.html/?material=6, transmitting power 1mWt, LNA 12dB. Normally that is a Bluetooth with a range of 10m. Testing on 25m == OK, testing on 100m == OK, but it shows that best reception will be with antennas pointing 10-15 degrees up instead of direct pointing (do not judge seriously = truly speaking designers was zero experience in antenna’s design), test over water at False Creek at Vancouver did not show good reception – looks like ground or water disturb signal, lifting tripod with transmitter and receiver manually just 1m up improve communication. Problem was corrected on a 5 block near Queen Elisabeth Park – road is strait, not much cars, hills from both side == manual holding and pointing allows to confirm communication over 450m.

That actually brings limits of a test for a ground station, the best place will be a Squamish Chief == face of cliff is around 700m and ground station has to be pointed with 45-60 degree to horizon.

Next step – amplifiers to increase power transmitting to 1Wt (in Canada allowed 4Wt), and mobile ground station assembly/functionality.

ON AUGUST 07, 2012 11:20 PM Questions about amplifier

 Привет Серега!

 Файлы со схематикой - http://www.adobri.com/misc/stm_bt/RF_GrSt.sch and http://www.adobri.com/misc/stm_bt/RF_GrSt.pcb с печатной платой (я также добавил эти файлы в письмо.

 Если мой дурацкий провайдер на загрузиться попробуй http://www.adobri.com/misc/stm_bt/RF_GrSt.zip

 Программа — ExpressPCB – такая — немного ограниченная - не дорогая — ее пользую — главное - плату получаю на второй день после заказа

 Антена - http://www.shapeways.com/model/322767/2-4ghz-antena.html для граунд станции и антена на спутнике http://www.shapeways.com/model/322768/small-2-4ghz-antena-for-cubesat.html

Фотки

Antena..

Antenna ...

 блутюз - http://www.nordicsemi.com/eng/content/download/2730/34105/file/nRF24L01_Product_Specification_v2_0.pdf

 усилитель мощности http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/S71291.pdf

 низкошумящие усилители http://cache.freescale.com/files/rf_if/doc/data_sheet/MC13850.pdf

 свитчи http://semicon.njr.co.jp/njr/hp/fileDownloadMedia.do?_mediaId=788

 регуляторы http://www.analog.com/static/imported-files/Data_Sheets/ADP3335.pdf 500 ма

 http://cds.linear.com/docs/Datasheet/1761sff.pdf 100 ма

 все компоненты которые я использую в базе данных - http://50.64.123.13/dbadobri/Search.aspx

если взять просто две антены (для граунд станции) то австралийцы работают на расстоянии 12 км просто подключив на wi-fi бокс эти антены — ограничение горизонт — высота на которую поднимают антены — никакие усилители в .том случае не нужны — я думаю при 20-40мв для wi-fi должно хватить и на 20км-60 км. Если поставить блутюз то наверно будет работать на километр. В принципе чувак на счетверенную такую антену (наматывают проще меня - на канализационную трубу) принимает сигнал с марс орбитера.

 схемы которые я тебе прислал в последнем варианте я выпаял регуляторы 3.3 вольтов как для усилителя мощьности так и для низкошумящего усилителя и подсоединил 3.3 вольтов 1 ампер — вел себя регулятор совсем загадочно — поэтому и выпаял

 R1 and R2 в усилителе мощности — я поставил делитель и подобрал сопротивление чтобы было 2.9 вольт — подтвердил осцилографом — в оригинальной схеме была ошибка - исправил

С26 — моя вставка — иначе свитчи не работают — ошибка которую исправил

С34 — тоже - исправил ошибку

L2 — не знаю почему но поставил вместо 12nH — 8.2nH

 затем исправил сигналы управляющие TX – RX – была глупая ошибка разводки

 затем была ошибка пропайки на U4

 затем ошибся с размерчиками — конденсаторы 402 (1мм х 0.5мм) а резисторы 805 (2мм х 1.25мм) а я все зафуговал 402 — пришлось резать перед пайкой граунд особождать место для больших резисторов.

 если работать на одни антены то устойчивый прием по воздуху 500 -670 метров. Если антену занести за стекло — то ничего не принимает и не передает — когда поставил усилители — то на 500 метров проибивает через стекло — чувствуется что усилитель начал работать — еще один признак работающего усилителя — когда захожу за деревья — с услилителем достаточно направить антены — работает (а за темиже деревьями с одной антеной — ни гу-гу) — также кажеться работает улилитель низкошумящий — на расстоянии 500 метров по воздуху прием в обе стороны был более уверенный чем на чистые антены

 Что я не понимаю — первое — это конденсаторы на выходе и на входе — какой длинны нужно держать трассы до и после конденсатора ?

 И нахрень эти конденсатьры? Допустим для развязки — почему тогда в примере на усилитьль мощьности 1.2 пикоФарады а на низкошумящий 2.4 пикофарады — или эти пики типа, что попало под руку? Или эти пикофарады завясят от длинны х ширины ?

 А от высоты не зависят? - Не я серьезно - пока все пропаяешь, на дорожки припоя - насоплишь - горбатые дорожки получаются — нужно ли эти сопли убирать или наоборот соплями регулировть пикофарады? А толщина платы - наверно на емкость тоже влияет?

 На кой ляд L1 – он мне столько крови попил — в рекомендованой схеме написано — Could be removed (really?!) if -7dB(?!) return (!?) loss (??!) is acceptable (?!) - Кому ЛОСС ?почему ПОТЕРЯ ВЗАД? — а что -8 это значит нормально? или -6 это совсем плохо? DB чево? — а в каких случаях АКСЕПТАБЛЕ — и это я скажу очень грамотная документация — по другим усилителям мощьности даже ножек не приводят — паяй чо-хош — 16х15х15х... комбинаторных комбинаций — простор для творчества.

 Теперь антена — я ее припаивал на J3 через конденсатор и без конденсатьра — вся плата как на снимке - тонкий провод прямо на конденсатор — Yes ! вызывает интерес — антену как по науке паять - с конденсором или беc?

 Теперь подсоединение к блутюзу — сейчас это кусок японскиго коаксиального уабеля (покупаю по большому блату и только у Ли на Мэйне — у других если коаксиал дак солидный - в мизинец) длиной 25 см (длинна волны 2.4 Гига - в будущем прямо на плате буду паять блутюз, но сейчас кабелюка) вопрос - от точки припайки до конденсаторов сколько должно быть — 1/16 ? 1/32 ? - длины волны? Или природа знает другие дроби?

 Дальше — везде говорят «50 ом / 85 mil” or “50om /120mil” – и умные такие фразы «50 ом выход» «50 ом на вход» — ну да! был такой дядя - Ом, жену даже может Омшей звали— из тибета— с ударением на согласную - все зудили ом-м-м - — ну и что! — 120 mil – это понимаю — на троих будет 360 — в аккурат чекушка — разливающему бонус 15 грамм - Но причем тут Ом?

 Может надо предварительный услилитель сварганить от блутюза ? — всетаки усилитель мощьности для Wi-Fi. - а я его блутюзом — он бедненький поднатужится поднапружиться — а мощьности нет как нет

 Там еще на схеме шумоподавитель на QHX220IQT7 – но не с тем шумом борюсь сейчас — я ее даже и не припаивал.

 Как сказанно в понедельнике — не интегрируется функция типа звездной статистики - там они потрошили золотую рыбку, а затем задавались вопросом - чего она плавает - потому что ауквариум с живой водой или от осознания сказочной реальности. А у меня ни воды, не аквариума, ни мыслей, ни золотой рыбки, один ступор. Может тебе чего в голову придет

Шура

ON AUGUST 09, 2012 03:03 PM Questions, questions, and more questions.

Hello Serg!

Files with schematics - http://www.adobri.com/misc/stm_bt/RF_GrSt.sch and http://www.adobri.com/misc/stm_bt/RF_GrSt.pcb file with PCB of 2.4 amplifier.

If provider will block files use .zip http://www.adobri.com/misc/stm_bt/RF_GrSt.zip

I use ExpressPCB – not best but not bad – most important for me – I get PCB manufactured on a 3 day after order.

Antenna for ground station - http://www.shapeways.com/model/322767/2-4ghz-antena.html , Antenna for Cube Sat - http://www.shapeways.com/model/322768/small-2-4ghz-antena-for-cubesat.html

Pictures: 

antena ..

Antenna

Bluetooth - http://www.nordicsemi.com/eng/content/download/2730/34105/file/nRF24L01_Product_Specification_v2_0.pdf

Power amplifier- http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/S71291.pdf

Low noise amplifiers - http://cache.freescale.com/files/rf_if/doc/data_sheet/MC13850.pdf

Switches - http://semicon.njr.co.jp/njr/hp/fileDownloadMedia.do?_mediaId=788

Voltage regulators 500ma http://www.analog.com/static/imported-files/Data_Sheets/ADP3335.pdf  and http://cds.linear.com/docs/Datasheet/1761sff.pdf 100 ma

All components in database - http://50.64.123.13/dbadobri/Search.aspx

In Australia on two antennas like for ground station with regular wi-fi distance 12km without problem – limit is horizon (or height of antenna mount) – no need for any amplifiers — I think with 20-40mwt for wi-fi distance can be 20-60 km. If to connect Bluetooth that it must work on 1 km. One man claimed that on 4 antennas together (made less fancy made then my – people used cut PVC sewage pipes) he get signal from Mars orbiter.

Schematic which I send in last tests was without regulators 3.3v – for power amplifier and for LNA. I removed them and connect 3.3v from 1amp regulator – regulators works somehow unstable – I think is just some of my mistake with capacitors – I need individual regulators for Bluetooth+PIC and separate supply for a TX and RX

R1 and R2 in power amplifier — I set 2.9V by a separate variable resistor for a voltage reference – conformed value – in original schematic was bug - fixed

С26 — my inserts — otherwise switches does not works – another bug – fixed

С34 — same bug - fixed

L2 — have no idea - in typical application 12nH – but I put 8.2nH

Then I fixed problem in control signals for TX-RX – was stupid bug in tracing.

Then was a bug in soldering on U4 (I believe this is when I baked voltage regulator 3.3 100ma)  

Then was bug with sizes — capacitors size 402 (1мм х 0.5мм) and  resistors 805 (2мм х 1.25мм), but on PCB I placed all sizes 402 – as a result I have to cut spaces for a bigger resistors and 10uF capacitors.

If two antennas used then stable signal is over open air - 500 -670 m. If one antenna will be behind window glass then distance reduced to 120m. If I put amplifiers, then on 500m over glass packets travels fine. Another sign that power amplifier somehow working – with antennas only (1mwt) behind trees no receptions on 100m – with amplifiers at the same spot perfect reception. Also over air 500m is definitely better reception (LED blinking only on packets used in protocol – period of blinking give rough estimates). But power amplifier should give 36 dB – am I right or not – input 1mwt – 36dB output 1Wt (current also shows 350 ma)? If it is 1Wt – than signal must be really strong – even on another side of downtown with reflection I should see reception? With 1mwt I perfectly get reflection from nearest building – with 1Wt – no reflection – only direct open air.

Run with CubeSat prototype at 3AM aroundVancouveris interesting task – all Boms are curious – usual question – Is that technology can be used to get high? At day time it is funny too – tourists 

I also do not understand – first – capacitors on RF-IN RF-OUT? What sizes of traces before and after capacitors should be?

And actually what for that capacitors? – lest assume for decoupling.  Then why on power amplifier it is 1.2pF and for LNA it is 2.4pF? – Frequency of a sample application for a same 2.4GHz, or this picoF just what you have today for soldering? Or this pico depend on width and length of a trace?

Does they depend on a height? No seriously – after soldering a lot of buggers on traces – trace like hatchbacks – does it require to clean buggers or make it bigger – to adjust picoF? Then thickness of PCB – how account this?

And what a hack this L1 – bloody inductor! In recommendation it is stated: “Could be removed (really?!) if -7dB(?!) return (!?) loss (??!) is acceptable (?!)” – What loss? Why loss back? — is it -8 is OK and -6 is very bad? What is ACCEPTaBLE? dB of what? And that documentation is really good – in other specs for a different chips – only pins – event horizon for a creativity – try what you like with combinations 16*15*14*… etc.

Now antenna – I soldered it on J3 over capacitor (1.2?.2.4?) – as on a picture – direct connection of a antenna to a capacitor and without capacitor – What will be proper way to soldering /connect with or without?

Then connection to a Bluetooth – today it is a coaxial 25cm (2.4Ghz length of wave) in a future Bluetooth will be on same PCB but now coaxial – question – from a point of connection length/width of a trace to capacitors should be??? 1/6 or 1/32 of wave’s length. Or nature likes different fractions?

Next – “50om /85 mil” or “50om/120mil” or something even more mysterious – “50om RFIN” “50om RFOUT” – Yes I know – it was a man with a last name Ohm – also Ommm is Tibetan song – and what? 120mil * 3 = 360 +15 = 375 = small bottle in liquor store. But how liquor store related to U=I*R?

May be needs additional amplifier? The power amplifier designed to work for wi-fi. And 1mWt is not enough to work?

Also on schematics present noise canceling QHX220IQT7. But I am fighting with difference noise - in a head mostly. I even did not soldered it.

If you understand – you help will be appreciated. My knowledge is limited in RF area - as you know.

Alex.

ON SEPTEMBER 13, 2012 12:36 PM Mold's creation == material PVA == work in progress

... formula” creates cycles of temperature by itself. Period is 1min 20 sec and period is stable, even after 20 minutes it stay amplitude and period the same. To repro situation needs to compile firmware (Sprinter) and monitor temperature in ReplicatorG. That is definitely creates a problem with extruder in case: for PVA stating flow point is 180C, starting coagulation temperature for PVA is 200C. Setting target temperature to 190 makes extruder jam when temperature drop to 180, and melt flow index = 0. That make pressure inside extruder jump, and small jam created. On another hand when temperature reach 200 it coagulates PVA on a surface of extruder (that will contribute to a jam in a future). Firmware with PID enable (I do not know correct name = “#define PIDTEMP 1” uncommented) is not capable to print PVA without jam. To avoid problem need to find solution ether by releasing extra pressure, or by different algorithm of regulation. Tried setting HEATER_CHECK_INTERVAL to 50 ms – amplitude of cycle dropped to +-5C, period was same, and I believe this is not because of algorithm as it is – just coincidence – when I debugged formula in spreadsheet – in each interval of time it jumped for one bigger value for heater_duty to a smaller value. With 50ms looks like it just “skipped” some of that jumps. When I tried different interval it just returned to same +-10C. For a plastic with more stable parameters of melt flow index (PLA/ABS) that problem with temperature regulation in extruder is not big impact – plastic flows in a range of +-10C and index is different but varies not much. Also checked “regular” temperature control (with PIDTEMP commented out) in this case when temperature reaches 191 it switches off, when it is low then 190 –then it is on. Cycles become shorter, and temperature variation is +-5C. Then I did experiments with heat absorber (I hold heater by big pliers – good contact and good heat adsorption). PID formula works better then on-off algorithm when there is a flow of a heat to cold pliers, when pliers become hoot (around 60 C – temperature when plastic insulation on pliers did allow to hold it in hands more) then “on-off” started to work better. Definitely to improve extruder for 3D printer needs to control temperature better then +-5C. Task by itself is interesting not only for dissolvable mold creation, but also for a temperature control in vacuum when only radiation of a heat can be done for “heat flowing out”.

ON SEPTEMBER 24, 2012 02:05 PM Quick update.

I would say (to my surprise) it is not bad as I was expected. Last 3 months it was communication – now I believe we have good antenna (CTO even insists to get patent), for ground station sorted out questions with mold creation – it is combined technology with dissolvable mold and alumini parts (takes a lot of time to make 3D printer working but now it saved a lot of time in design), amplifiers starts to give a promising gain. Temperature stabilization for a craft and satellite – study was done – problems and solutions for electronics temperature control was outlined. Stepper motors modes was also done study – there some promising development with precisions in antenna’s orientation. Everything ready for debugging algorithms on inclination table (simulation moon gravity). On a business front there is interesting development – we made attempt to push for Canadian microsatellite launcher – our proposals/ ideas was in a form of special letter for Canadian Space Agency. Now we are working on a signing process from supporting business. Nothing is visible now but… Problems not resolved et – power station, solar panels, With power it is hard – without experiments on an orbit with Cubesat everything is in a fog. Video – not much - we have may be 15-20 min video for communication tests – raw video – may be next month we can make video with frame (rover/ground station) creation and wheels testing on inclination table.

ON SEPTEMBER 24, 2012 04:00 PM Mold printing

Complicated carbon fiber parts for rover and ground
stations, require complicated molds. Design such molds require quite a time to
be properly designed. As a solution for fast mold design was choose 3D printing
technology with material withstand temperature for a 1 stage cure (93C) of
epoxy and mold dissolvable in water. Material is PVA (in long spaghetti form),
and printer is Mendel Prusa. It takes a time (1 month) to build such printer
mostly because printer is in experimental stage, source code in 3 different
languages, technology require precise temperature control, adjustments for
experimental filaments like PVA is mandatory / complicated, extruders is in
experimental stage too. But after questions with software and temperature
control was sorted out, 3D printing allows to simplify mold design. Now it
takes 5-7 times faster to make suitable mold then when mold was made from
alumini plastic. Alumini plastic actually better suited to work in molds – it can
hold second curing temperature (163C) for epoxy, but saving time is more advantageous
in that case. Another advantage is to have 3D printer at hands – this is allow another
time savings – ordering via online alumini molds can not be done faster then
two weeks cycle.

You can see captured screen of a printer printing
first (base) part of the dissolvable mold –

Mold Base

For sure software (ether java or pyton ) require improvements – estimated time to finish print shows
years to finish task, and who knows! – may be software estimation is right ;-)

ON SEPTEMBER 24, 2012 04:25 PM Molds - funny part.

Funny part of the molds/rover frame creation – first mold was made from alumini – epoxy and carbon sweeter (knotted) of a frame was placed into mold – first (93C) and second (163C) cure was done and after process comes the truth – mold can not be disassembled – all attempts was failed. After some consideration was chosen method for disassembling combined with a drop test (14 floor in downtown Vancouver) strata for the building do not allow to throw from the windows cigarettes butts, but nothing in regulation was about lunar rover. Attempt was made with precaution under cover of the night, mold with carbon part of a frame fly freely – and – mold + frame part survived impact solidly. Fortunately manager of the building was on vacation.

ON SEPTEMBER 25, 2012 12:47 PM Frame part. mold 2.

Mold 2 Another part done

ON SEPTEMBER 27, 2012 01:11 PM one mold's part left

Mold for left tube holder/longeron:

Mold 2

stepper motor sleeve / ceramic bearing holder.

Mold 2

Extrusion of PVA filament is tricky. Filament needs to keep dry – In Vancouver it is hard – as a result needs to cut “spaghetti” 10-25 m long. Estimation of required length in 3D printing software kind of sketchy. Mistake in manual measurement can ether ruin part or extruder can stop thread's extrusion. Loosing part better then stops – PVA in extruder coagulates if left for a long time under 190C.

Video capture and remote desktop essential in this case – from cellular phone it is possible to do check process remotely. Safety is mandatory also – nobody knows what happen if experimental technology will generate sparks. Pictures in last posts was not captured intentionally but rather as a "side effect" of 3D printing process.

Even with all of printer’s problems it is not comparable with time savings.

November 2, 2012. - Q&A -"Neznaika On The Moon";

Today my son (sorry == Technical Director) come and tell – “Father (sorry == Team Lead) you mislead me for such long time!” To reply – “OK, but you should not blame me for a Santa’s nonexistence”. He tells the story as it is. - “Not a Santa ! But guidance book that you use for lunar project!”

Day ago he visited his Russian speaking friends, and explained project’s highlights. First reaction was a smile, then attempt to suppress laugh, then, when he came to point of recent Google Lunar XPRIZE development and Team Plan B particularly, all family, including small child, starts loudly laughing and rolling over laminated floor. Confused he asked to explain such reaction – friend with tears told that they just finished read children book “Donno on The Moon” (“Neznaika on The Moon” from the “Do-Not-know” hero name). And looks like all guidance for the project (at least Plan B) coming from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunno and it is even possible to predict what will be next steps: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Neznaika or it is possible to watch everything on Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Re8m8QdSjhc (sorry - no translation to the English available yet).

Well, my Technical Director, that book was so popular in grade five that it was virtually impossible to get it, was available for read only when book’s owner was busy to do math quizzes.

And those are original pictures from 1965.

Inventor. Good boy.

Inventor. Good boy. Glasses. Hard working. Little bit crazy. Practical approach. In conflict with “official” theoretical science.

accidentally discovered antigravity

Main invention: Moonstone (failed from the moon). Accidentally discovered antigravity showed up all over the village. Donno / Neznaika get hit by cooking pod. Boiling water spilled. Fortunately doctor was nearby.

Rocket. Design. Drawings.

Discovery must be utilized. Rocket. Design. Drawings. Break engine on the top. Incredible details for kid’s books.

shoes needs to be nailed at working place

At antigravity (weightlessness) shoes needs to be nailed at working place.

Spaceport

Spaceport in the village. Secretly build in one night.

needs to be careful with any technology

Antigravity again. Side effects in a pond (needs to be careful with any technology).

Not really bad boys, but curious.

Donno and his friend. Not approved for space flight. Not really bad boys, but curious. Security measures were not taken properly on the launch pad.

Accidentally pressed button.

Accidentally pressed button. (All buttons should be labeled. Read first. Do not touch what you do not know).

Automated guidance system.

Automated guidance system. (Moon rock attracts by the moon and direct flight was possible – Donno don’t know how to operate a rocket – learn, learn and learn – that is a school for!).

First steps.

Exploring. First steps.

Curiosity.

More explorations. Curiosity. Moon’s caves.

Do not forget to tie you shoelaces!

Looks like mine on the moon. Definitely it is a way. Do not forget to tie you shoelaces!

The Moon is empty inside, with mass concentrates inside

Here it is! Curiosity brings troubles, and discovery can be made: ice on the moon located deep under surface, the moon has different density, with mass concentrates inside, with a breathable air (where is the ice there is an air!), . . .

Lunatics

. . . and Lunatics lives there.

Now needs to give a bit of explanation. Year was 1965. Cold war, you know, small kids needs to be properly trained that capitalism is bad, and it is located on the moon, and a life is a flip of a coin.

friend can get lucky

One friend can get lucky.

study, study and study at school, otherwise the end will be predictable

Another is not. (Again need to study, study and study at school, otherwise the end will be predictable).

escape is only choice

… attempt to escape is only choice.

Giants Plants Inc.

Confused Donno and local criminals. Giants Plants Inc. was registered as public trade company. Business plan – to bring to the moon seeds of a giant, non-genetically modified cucumbers, watermelons and etc.. Enterprise was successful from start, but big corporations – you know story - greens against globalization. Donoo leaning to anarchism and that is his source of troubles. Arrested, and send to Paradise Island with no school around.

Who took the rocket?

Now back on earth - Is it a joke? Who took the rocket?

Let’s build another one.

All right. Not big deal. Let’s build another one. More usual design, 3 rockets’ stages, basic principles of orbital mechanics. Practical science shakes hands with theoretical, couple months of work, rocket done.

lack of funding in scientific community

Back on moon. Telescope. Detects gravitons. Dreams for scientists. Because of a lack of funding in scientific community just gravitons, otherwise it can be bigger, and detect photons and radio waves.

Rescue mission

Rescue mission (antigravity drive is really cool!).

Safety first!

That is how it should be done! Safety first! Team work!

Newton’s laws

That is what can happen if you do not consider Newton’s laws!

do not spend all day watching TV

Profession - reporter. It is tough, especially at hot spots. And do not smoke – burning cigarette can start a fire! And do not spend all day watching TV- you can start drinking!

island of the Fools

Donno is happiest boy, he was rescued from the island of the Fools, where only genetically modified food was provided, as a result kids watches movies and sleeps in a movie’s theater at night, plays all days on playground. Side effect of GMF – no thought about the schools or attempts to escape from island. Does not matter what you think but antigravity is cool!

You don't know how lucky you are, boy - Back in the US - Back in the US - Back in the USSR

After rescue. Friends flying together as one flock, leading by experienced scientist.

Let’s keep earth free from extraterrestrial microbes.

Quarantine back on earth. High fever. Slow recovery. Let’s keep earth free from extraterrestrial microbes. See you doctor regularly.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Book is really good. Lots of humor. Recommended for ages 5-10. Coin was printed in 2008 (Russia) to commemorate Dunno and his writer Nikolay Nosov. Postal stamp in 1992.

In 1997 was made cartoon with political correctness introduced - removed criticism of capitalism, girly names have been changed to more euphonious (“Daisy” and etc.), girls persistently asks: “Why boys do not play with us? And to not take us into a space flight?”. Donno’s buddy (on the moon) instead of boy (name “Kozlik” == “kid goat”) become a girl (new name “Zvestochka”==”Small Star”), romance with earth’s boy and moon’s girl submitted and two computer equipped with voice recognition and speech human interface used as an automated guidance system, The Moon become green. Son – I promises to read that book to your daughter when she will be 5.

September 28, 2012. -  "Alouette 1" anniversary.

On September 29 will be 50 years anniversary of a first Canadian satellite “Alouette1” launched: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alouette_1  Canada was a third country build its own satellite after USSR and USA.

November 13, 2012. - Update on CSA, PDSTS/STDP Announcement of Opportunity.

Update on CSA, PDSTS/STDP Announcement of Opportunity: http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/ao/2012-stdp.asp

Today answer from CSA on a proposal titled: “Canadian Micro Satellite launcher. Phase one. Estimates and supportive technologies”:

. . . . the proposal is not eligible for the following reasons:

1. The proposal is not linked to the Program Objectives as launchers are not currently a priority at the Canadian Space Agency;

2. The proposal is not an eligible project as defined in the Announcement of Opportunity since launchers are also not considered a spacecraft platform. . . .

Proposals by itself is: http://www.adobri.com/doc/Canadian%20Micro%20Satellite%20Launcher.pdf

NOVEMBER 13, 2012 07:35 PM Class D Amplifier. (translation will be later)

Шура!

Наконец-то понял, че такое класс Д усилитель (туп был - сознаюсь! спасибо Саше за подсказку) - два полевых транзистора (один N другой P полярности) одинаковых характристик работают как ключи - входы (затворы) соеденены вместе, истоки запаяны тем же кренделем - сток одного на питании, сток другого на земле.

Когда на входе одно значение (0) то на истоках земля == 0 вольтов - а при значении 1 на входе == на истоках получается питание.

За счет того что схема сидит либо в открытом, либо закрытом состоянии КПД достигает 100%

Все просто как байт.

После выхода ставят фильтр для обрезания в синусоиду - некоторые утверждают (в высокоученых публикакциях), что зело быть решение для усилка мощьности голубозубого == т.к. максимум надо чтоб пролез сдвиг по фазе на 180 градусов. (для Вай-Фай не подходит = там что-то замучено со сдвижкой).

Но, как в том анекдоте, с заблудшим в лесу мужиком, от отчаяния кричащим - А-УУ! - Услышь-те ! Памаги-те! Кто-нибу-ть! - кричал -кричал - вдруг, кто-то ему лапу на плечо - оборачивается - медведь - Ну хорошо мужик - вот я тебя и услышал - а поможет ли тебе это?

так и у меня - от того что что-то нашел - не значит что решение найдено - 

Пунктик номер один - на нужную частоту полевые транзисторы только одной плярности. Максимум что можно собрать из таких транзисторов, это класса А-Б усилитель (тетеретическийКПД максимум 60% )

 Пункт номер два - прикинул что можно использовать обычные свитчи - ан -нет! - свитчи пашущие на сумашедших частотах, с мощностями 1-5 ватт, (!) переключаются с канала на канал (!) с максимальной частотой только до одного гигагерца (1 наносекунда) - а надо 2.4гига (или 0.41 и шесть в периоде наносукунды).

Начал рыть, а как же для космоса работают - да работают - только топологию для такого устройства разрабатывают индивидуально - после разработки профессора пишут статью - а цена такой цацки минимум 100 штук зеленых.

А для свичев пронблема еще веселей - судя по всему лапу наложили ребята с шевронами - и хотя есть надежда как в случае с гироскопом - в спецфикации одно, а на деле переключаются быстрее - но это вряд ли! - должны бдить!

Остаются радио лампы - но у них дикие габариты - нужно учитывать все емкости и индуктивности по пути в лампу и из оной. Или лампы бегущей волны. Или изучать принцыпы работы транзисторов.

Вот такая карусель получается - максммум КПДна сегодня  50% - для кубсата может быть ОК - а для луны явно не хватит батарей - на шнурок придется дополнительную привязывать - что не есть зер-гут!

NOVEMBER 14, 2012 01:54 PM Class D amplifier. (translation).

Alex- Finally got what is class D amplifier (thanks for Sasha ‘s tip) – two MOSFET with similar characteristics (one is N another is P type) working as switches. Gates and drains connected, one source (P)on a power another source (N) on a ground. In simulation shows when on gates voltage low then 1.1V, then on drains is ground, and when on gates >1.1v, on drains VDD. Even gain around 8-10Db can be achieved, but it does not matter. If to skip the gain then switches will be in open or closed state, as a result PAE (Power Added Efficiency) can be around 100%. Some matching for impedance should be done, but that is a minor question. Switching voltage depend on MOSFETs, the same can be said about impedance matching design. On exits needs to put filter to make sin-cos-things.

 Simple like a Byte! Isn’t it?

Some researchers (in scientific patents) stated  that it can be important solution for low cost tooth-blue’s  power amplifier because GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shifting Keying == shift 180 degree) less picky then π/4DQPSK (45 degree shifting) and 8DPSK(8 phases). On Wi-Fi that idea does not work.

But like in that funny story about the hunter lost direction in a forest, does not matter what you find, matter how can use it.

a) Variety MOSFETs for 2.4Ghz available only in one polarity. Maximum what can be constructed from such devices is class A, A-B (theoretical PAE 60%)

b) Check for available switches bring “Ops”. Switches working on huge frequencies with power 1-5 watts can switch from channel to channel with maximum frequency up to 1GHz (1 nanosec), and for 2.4GHz  needs to have 0.41(6) nano – Oops in full scale.

Well, what is about “space” – yep – looks like it working but topology for such chip needs to be ordered as customer’s order. Prices in that case will be around big green numbers.

With switches looks like more complicated case – restrictions on good toys is in place – you know –

What was left – (a) tubes, but needs to account power for heating, all those passive and active induct-capas-res-tors on the way into the tube and a signal's path out. (b) Traveling Wave tubes. (c) go to school to learn how transistors are working.

That’s it. Nicht gut. Today best is PAE 50% maximum, may be for Cubesat it is Ok but definitely not for the moon, solar panels on shoelaces required.

Yours truly,

Dunno.

NOVEMBER 21, 2012 04:32 PM PAE and efficiency.

Boris – Q: – if PAE of transmitter amplifier == 40% then around 60% (definitely less, rest is noise) goes to the heat – assuming that a thermal radiation is only available method to heat transfer, then some of the heat will be possible to recycle by reverse Peltier thermoelectric heat pump. That is easy to check on our next tests with 1WT transmitter. Even more - with 25WT eating by amplifier and PAE=40%,  15WT goes to heat, each watt recycled will improve Ecclesiastes' ratio – “time to harvest power” / “time to transmit”, that will give for each one watt recycled = 2% savings in total time transmission == 0.5 low resolution frame per 10 minutes transmission session , or on 16hours (for required 15min HD video) will be 25 minutes savings. Efficiency of  Pertier’s elements is kainda a question (especially reverse one) – in some sources it is stated == 5-10% in some up to 50% - needs to make experiments, but even with 5% it will be 1% savings in session time.

NOVEMBER 15, 2012 01:58 PM Class D and class E,F amplifiers.

Alex- correction for previous post about class D:  “. . .PAE (Power Added Efficiency) can be around 100%. Some matching for impedance should be done, but that is a minor question.. . .”

Last statement is not true. According: http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:240432 matching impedance eats 60% of efficiency. Suggestion in article to use Class E

with proper impedance matching in topology. But for class E and Bluetooth this also stated inhttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4770499&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4770499 that with 22.7 dBm (186mW) it is 36%PAE and for 26.4 dBm (437 mW) PAE = 30%. Needs to ask – does they actually made such device or it is just theoretical calculations on simulators.

Tubes/wave. To make experiments needs to have ability to get high vacuum inexpensive way – glass can be printed, everything can be printed and packed into glass. It is funny – to get the vacuum (free on the orbit) needs to have a vacuum (expensive on earth) – Isn’t it?   

Antenna will arrive tomorrow. It will be possible to make measurements with 0dBm to compare helical and modified helical designs. I discussed today with Boris crazy idea about make modified antenna with active antenna’s sections. He looked at me like professor of physics looks at perpetuum mobile’s inventor. Active antenna skipped.

And you have no idea what I bought looking for wave tubes!  PDP-11 processor! – Old! golden pins shining brightly! (at least on picture). It will be embedded into Cube-sat – may be we can connect a power pin to a ground!

Yours truly

Donno

 

ON NOVEMBER 16, 2012 04:34 PM 3D printed CPUs on the moon?

Well, first processors for IBM S/360 computers was done by interesting technology, CPU by itself was a BOOK(!), with conductors laminated into a plastic pages. Current introduced by input inductors around BOOK (sorry CPU) creates tiny current on output conductors on pages, and that current does all processor/logics  job.

Yes, cooling was major problem (efficiency) to be resolved.

Yes, to change microcode (operations performed by CPU) needs to open CPU’s BOOK, remove old pages, and insert new.

Yes, it was difficult to design such computer (USSR for example just copycat existing pages from S/360), and etc. problems.

But today it is possible to 3D print such BOOK (CPU) as one device from titanium, debug it, tested it (CPU for example can support system of command of a specific, exsisting processor) and then simply re-print CPU  on the moon.

Yep – speed can be slow. Well, size will be big, but old technology can help to make self-suntanned base on the Moon.  All computers required for the mission can be built on the moon except initial amount delivered from the earth.

The same can be done for amplifiers devices required for a communications/input/output units – vacuum and dust on the moon is free, emissions of electrons works same way under solar radiation (instead of heat) and old century’s triodes, pentodes are perfect to replicate by current 3D printing technology.  Why tubes? – Well solar radiation can kill electronics, but tubes will be OK! Story of Kemurdjian's team (Lunokxod-1,2 designer) show interesting twist about tubes – after Chernobil explosions, on roof of the reactor to clean radioactive debris was tried different rovers. All advanced robotics failed in first minutes – and only one was working – on tubes – it was a rover from Kemurdjian's team.

That’s it for today dusty update.

November 21, 2012 CALCULATIONS, CALCULATION, AND NOTHING MORE THAN CALCULATIONS.

Thanks Gregory! – FR-4 PCB’s dielectric constant ranges Er= 4.2 – 5.0 (assumed Er=4.8). Height of dielectric =62mils. Thickness of the board = 1.25 oz/ft^2 (1.7mils). Useful link to calculate Z0 =http://www.ekswai.com/en_microstrip.htm . Smith’s calculator resources http://sss-mag.com/smith.html (very good Smith.exe by Prof. Fritz Dellsperger from Switzerland). As a result for MW7IC2425NR1 on reverse calculation impedance on input pin = (58.535 –j9.834) on output pad (5.180+j59.876) – error 20% based on Er error. Looks like will be require for MOSFET to narrow amount of channels from 128 to 32. That can give PAE around 40% - for clamed in spec consuming 25WT it will be 10WT of transmitted power (with harvesting on 3-rd week max = 4- 5WT it will require 6 minutes to harvest for transmitter, 4 minutes for control and 1 minute for transmit totaling == 60sx10K = 600K/min, or 10 minutes == 1 HR picture ,or 24 low resolutions frames, or 15min HR video will be transmitted during 16 hours). On http://hamwaves.com/antennas/inductance.html for new design of antenna it is Zc=128om. For switches good HMC784MS8GE(10WT, isolation -32dB). Needs to re-trace PCB, order and test. That is best for today.

Dunno (still on Earth)

November 28, 2012 REQUIRED POWER FOR COMMUNICATION ON LUNAR DISTANCES.

Igor - Assume MW7IC2425 25WT with narrow band PAE 40% will transmit 10WT (40dBm).Assume nRF24L01 sensitivity -85dBm (at 1Mbps). Assume cascade 3 LNA amplifiers (SKY67014-396LF) with noise 4dB, gain 36Db total. On distance 400000km path Loss 212 dB on 2450 MHz, all this will require on both side antennas with 28dBi gain to get -80dBm RX power. Enough to work with nRF24L01’s sensitivity -85dBm and margin for a noise 85-80 = 5dB. Using different LNA amplifiers (MC13850EPR2) will give 6dB noise and 39 gain, outcome in this case -77dBm with margin for noise 85-77 = 8dB. Pretty tight.

To test on Cubesat transmitter == 0.5WT transmit (27dBm), distance 400km path loss 152 dB, symmetrical antennas with 8dBi gain will give in that case -70dBm RX power. That is a goal for test flight.

For first test on ground, transmitter has to be stripped from power amplifier with LNA cascade 26-29dB and direct 1mWt (0dBm) output to same antennas (8dBi) as for Cubesat to get same -71dBm power on RX. Distance has to be 20 km (path loss 126dB). Direct distance = Cyprus – SFU hill ==25, Grouse Mt. – SFU hill == 15km, and Mt. Seymour – SFU == 9 km.

For second test on ground, transmitter with 0.1WT (20dBm) and same antennas require 2km (path loss 106dB) distance for same -70dBm RX. In this case LNA amplifiers hast to be removed, or put into by-pass mode.

To calibrate 8dBi ‘s antennas, power amplifier and LNA has to be both removed and -70dBm RX achieved on distance 200m. Adjusting antennas from original can be done by reducing amount of turn on helix. Perfect spot for this - is my window on 14th floor and a BC place near steam's plant.

Reduced size helical shows 10cm length with 15 dBi, and on 40cm around 28dBi (today it is only speculations). To confirm that needs to test on distance 200m antennas with 1/3 of turns. And after that conformation has to be done on regular helix 8cm (3 turns).

For testing 0.5-1WT PA pretty good is glass windows in my building – glass reduces signal – measuring distance with calibrated 8bDi antenna helix allows to calculate path loss over glass (LNA has to be bypassed) estimation for today is 15-25dB. Distance around 0.5km – 0.7km on spot of Olympic village can be used to test full system. To get -69dBm RX power needs to path loss 112 dB (4km) on 0.5WT or 115dB (5.6km) loss for 1WT.

Useful link for this (instead all formulas searches, implementation inside calc and etc.) - http://www.changpuak.ch/electronics/calc_10.php

December 06, 2012 FOR 3D PRINTING.

OK, Victor - in Lunar soil samples:

Plagioclase 30%-35% compositions NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8 , melting point 1100—1550 °C.

Pyroxenes 54%-60% usually for earth that is formula XY(Si,Al)2O6 (X = calcium, sodium, iron+2 , magnesium, rarely zinc, lithium; Y = in smaller size chromium, aluminium, manganese, scandium, titanium, vanadium, iron+2), with melting point 1300°C.

Olivine 3%-8% formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 melting point Mg2SiO4 = 1897°C.

Ilmenite (absent in Lunar highland areas) 18%-2% formula (FeTiO3). Melting point 1400°C.

I understand that to get Ti, Fe, or Al from oxides needs to do all chemical reaction. And standard way does not work, no CO, no H2, no C, no H2O. To get Iron from Fe2O3 it is possible to use Aluminum: Fe+32O3 +2Al -> 2Fe0 + Al2O3, and not sure about Ti. Looks like way to start will be Aluminum, with molten oxide electrolysis (it is 1200C) - will requare a lot of electrisity - but side effect – it will be 40% of the oxygen ! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Moon_vs_earth_composition.svg . I am not talking about reaction like Fe+32O3 +2Al it surplus heat at night time!

With 3D printing on the moon first step will be to separate fractions of a lunar dust.

December 07, 2012 BLA-BLA-BLA CONTINUES.

Victor – ...With 3D printing on the moon first step will be to separate fractions of a lunar dust. For such porpoise can be used low gravity, vacuum conditions and old vacuum tubes technology. Cathode's material under the heat (as it was in tubes) emits electrons. Anode on some distance from cathode, over regolith (I believe long time ago was an idea to use cathode-anode as a solar battery and theoretical efficiency was pretty high, and heavy) accelerates electrons and part of electrons beamed to a surface of regolith, after some period of charging, charging process stopped, and another plate (charges negatively) placed over regolith, acting as a capacitor’s plate (all of this is from 10 grade physics’ practice book, I believe). Depend of a voltage on a plate, smaller fractions of duct will levitates from a surface, and distributes by weight vertically. Last step - another positive charge applying by tore shaped collector will discharge particles of regolith. Lowing or elevating collector (or by changing voltage of the “capacitor” plate - preferably) will select different fractions. Actually it does not matter how to harvest fraction - static charges, and known formulas can apply. If some fraction will be suitable to make practical object (glass will be first to try) the same principle can apply to a way of delivery dust particle to a surface of printing layers (it will be less mechanical parts in 3D printer).

Surprisingly some of old “school’s” physics bring modern interests – for example charged, same sign, 0.1-100 micron particles, in some conditions can attract each other instead of commonly believed action. http://journals.ioffe.ru/jtf/2010/05/p75-79.pdf

Compact version of useful formulas are in: http://genphys1.phys.spbu.ru/People/Karasev/docs/meth2.pdf

Effects on charged dust particles on Moon - http://nuclphys.sinp.msu.ru/school/s10/10_01.pdf

Effects on charged dust particles on equipment: http://144.206.159.178/ft/7938/739975/13859267.pdf

Plasma with injected 5-60 mkm particles: http://www.ebiblioteka.lt/resursai/Uzsienio%20leidiniai/ioffe/ztf/2004/11/ztf_t74v11_24.pdf

Despite of your “contra” about complication of metallurgy process on the moon – and you correct point that this is not our priority today - it is known that aluminum is like “accumulator”, it accumulates energy. Circle – (a) day time producing Al from Al2O3 and (b) night time producing from Fe2O3 +2Al -> heat + 2Fe0 + Al2O3 solves a problem - technological process can work all time without nuclear source.

Surpluses oxygen with aluminum by itself is perfect solid (Al) + liquid (O2) rocket’s fuel+oxidizer.

Can you answer me how that aluminothermic reaction will work not on a tank’s plates welding but on a kainda micro-level – in vacuum, 25 -50 micron size Al and similar size Fe2O3 intersect each other at specific point where controlled heat can apply? It will be nice to make such experiment, today on earth, in big vacuum chamber – but no time, – can you answer what it will be at least theoretically?

And with 3d printing - look what did Markus Kauser : http://www.thisiscolossal.com/2011/06/markus-kayser-builds-a-solar-powered-3d-printer-that-prints-glass-from-sand-and-a-sun-powered-laser-cutter/

December 18, 2012 POSSIBLE SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT?

Well, Victor – you right, absolutely - two visible way today – in 2000 was experiments to make Al from Al2O3 in hydrogen plasma (in some blog reference to UDK 541.14 http://hbar.phys.msu.ru/gorm/forum/index.php?t=msg&th=2433&goto=50817&S=8dc2fbb39a516315e8538348f84b2e64#msg_50817 experiments was done in Krasnoiarsk) , and in 2006 was theoretical study on formula 2Al2O3+3C=4AL+3CO2 (http://www.itp.nsc.ru/Laboratory/LAB_2_1/papers/5.pdf ) again in plasma, was done estimates: 12-14 kWt for 1kg of aluminum at 2400K temperature. Both methods require ether hydrogen or carbon. Carbon is preferable to bring from earth. In second method some amount of a carbon react with aluminum and creates Al4C3, that will require carbon extraction from carbide. Second way requires less energy. Recycle CO2-> C + O2 also will be needed. What do you think ?– can we formulate the real task to investigate instead of just bla-bla - “How to restore aluminum from 2Al2O3 -> 4Al +3O2 under vacuum conditions and lunar environment”, or to forget all this for a first stage and to try separation of Al metal from a lunar dust (some amount already present in moon rock's samples).

Experiment in that case can involve extraction, by static, Al particles, and distribute it to collector to form a wire, then evaporation of the formed wire can create on a concave (or flat, or prism formed) surface some reflector mirror. Simple, light and effective experiment (instead of bringing laser reflector or optical device from the earth will be possible to print it on the moon surface).

DECEMBER 24, 2012 02:17 AM 86931 = 6687 * 13, and "Tau Ceti"

If, for some reason, you want to touch the moon, then needs to confirm some of the earth's orbital parameter – i.e. amount of days in one year. Placing additional constrains: that Wikipedia, or JPL's data with planetary and lunar ephemerides, unavailable permanently, brings the question - what does really requires to get value 365.256363004 days?

For a start, as in old procedure, would be good to have some planar ground. By using a pole and a rope needs to draw circle around a vertically standing pole, and wait sunshine. When pole's shadow crosses circle twice, two points and pole defines an angle. Dividing that angle by two equal angles shows direction to North (Pole), opposite point on the circle marks South, and 90 degrees direction orients to Orient (East). Depends on weather it can take 1-2 days.

 For a second step needs to wait sunrise at crossing Equinox's line (East direction). For an observation, the line better be carved on stone(s), a planar ground have to be at least a football field's size. On one side of the 100 yards line, needs to place the permanent marker, and on another side of a field(an observatory), perpendicularly movable marker. With Sun's visible angle == 0.5 degree the permanent marker can be 0.5 yards big, and, yep, heavy. Small, movable markers - targets can be chosen for convenience any size. Couple of days before and after Easter (weather can obstruct observations), needs to mark the position of the movable marker at sunrise. Daily marks would be on a distance of 8-10 cm (3-4 inches) from each other. To achieve double precision, needs to double the size for an Stonehenge complex, or to close one eye. With the Equinox's crossing count of days starts.

 After 365 days were counted, you would found length year's approximation, also another discovery were made, the mark for the Equinox line's crossing is a little bit shifted from previous year's location, difference is small, 2 cm -1 inch maximum, it can be a measurement's mistake, but the mistake would be to close the eye on a shift and to keep the observatory smaller size. After couple years, confirmation comes, the sun makes in 3 years, 3 small moves into one direction, and then one big leap backward. In that leap year you will count 366 days. Wow! One year == 365.25 days.

 Now needs to wait 43 years patiently observing Sun's 3 small shifts per each 3 years, and 1 big leap on 4-th. Nothing to improve in precision, each leap year gives same 365.25 days. Then comes the surprise! Instead twirling pirouette 3-1, the sun whirls 2-1. Once again, give the sun wow! One non-leap year was skipped, and calculation yields 15706 days which are equal 365.255814 days per year, enough precision to make 1 days error in 1821 years.

 Show must go on. Another 36 years (12 times) with circle 365-365-365-366, and then, circle 365-365-366, with a skip of 82-th year. Nobody, with clear mind and such task, would live so long, but that is the payoff: 1 year == 365.2560976, with error: 1 day in 3767 years. Leap year detection by naked eye dramatically improves the calendar's precision. Instead of convenient calendar with 3 regular years and one lead year, needs to have shifting leap year with 43 or 39 years repeatable circle. What will be a measurable error in that case? Lost 82 years without a training students and a teaching them beauty of useless numbers, with goal: apprentices will continue observations.

 In 121 year, same 365-365-366 leap year, and 44196 days brings error ==1 day in 6073 years.

 To be continued. Year 160, 58441 days, 1 day error in 8849 years.

 Year 199 from establishment of an observatory, calculations == 1year ==365.2562814, precision -1 day in 12255 years. Impressive.

 In next 39 years would be interesting and simultaneously boring. Sunrise's observations goes 10 days per year. Rest of the time scholars (now 10-th generation) are working on government’s numerous orders, or may be on they own research and development, successfully produced something drinkable, or inhale-capable. For sure real scientists themselves performs initial tests. Effect was powerful – formed task to analyze already collected data from all shifts-leap-years to check common denominators with prime numbers (please - take it easy – in modern days a lot of algorithms depends on prime numbers! Lets say - ideas was boosted after substance's legalization!). But, pity, none of collected numbers 15706, 29951, 44196, 58441, 72686, was divided by prime number bigger then 3 and less then 23 with remainder equal 0. State of art project requires state of art implementation, including financing.

 And that is how theoretical physics meets experimental one – At Easter day, year 238, priests did final counts, 86931 days! Wow! 86931 divide by 13, == 6687, remainder == 0, it is a invention of the year! Unbelievable improvement in understanding core of the universe (Earth orbit's period) => 86931 / 238 = 365.2563015 days, with an error (1) one day in 16533 years! Theoretical science made peace with practical physics, everybody celebrate by dancing on the streets, the funding prolonged for another 39 years.

 Well, theoretics and practices, be careful with written bla-bla statements, to avoid a fate of heretics, the next number 101176 divide by 13 brings a non zero remainder. Definitely unlucky 13, year 277 become knows as a year of cuts, probably not only in funding. After final improvement of a precision (1 day in 22068 years) nobody was willing to continue job in an astronomy, or astrology. Next generation choose chemistry and psychology. Two calendar will be in use, one official, another – secret to avoid embarrassments. Next stop in history will be calculus theological's implication, but it will different continent.

  Are any problems in such interpretation of a Maya's calendar? Two sets, 13 base – does fit. Capable: 1 day in 56096 years achievable in 394 years observations by naked eye. Well - no direct prove – but future archeologists has the field. Starting, and ending point, not explained. More interesting question - What actually supports creativity, and what blocks it? Errors? Or Information? If Von Braun, or Korolev would know today's data from Curiosity, rover probably would not have chance to fly at all; or making available to Columbus correct earth's radius before sail will rename Beautiful British Columbia definitely.

 Long live errors, luck, Wikipedia, and JPL! Little bit different planet's orbital speed, and bye-bye number 13.

 As for "Tau Ceti" with a livable planet around, well, Youri, we grown together with that song, Perfect prediction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Lb3UaBGT2o

DECEMBER 26, 2012 10:36 PM Новогодний перевод шутки индейцев майя, по поводу июня, и августа.

(для моих школьных друзей – update for my school’s friends, translation of previous post )

Опустим июль – жарко, мозги плывут. Представим, что современная шпора из википедии недоступна, и уроки Ильи Яковлевича Борца остаются надежным источником информации, а лететь на луну надо. Что стоит, самую простенькую цифру рассчитать – сколько дней в одном годе. Да-да-да – в те самые 365.256363004 дней. Зачем, так, точно? – да лететь пора,  на луну.

Вспомнимаем как учили, подбираем ровную полощадку, втыкаем шест (по не по русски – pole – пол - пол -  полюс), веревку к нему привязываем, окружность рисуем гвоздиком на земле, и загораем пока тень от шеста не пересечет дважды цвиркульную линию. Угол в пополам и север найден. Последнюю тысячу лет процедура называлась ориентирование, по вычислению Ориентира – Ориента – востока, под 90 градусов от направления на севера, а Север, North pole, так и остался под названием шест-полюс.

Дальше больше, полощадка, честно сказать, нужна большая, как футбольное поле, желательно асфалтьрованная, и в то утро, когда начертаная линия пересечется с точкой восхода солнца,  начинаем считать, день, два, три, до 365, тупое занятие по любому счету, если бы не потрясающее зрелище расталдыкнувшихся по белу светушку солнечных лучиков. Мушка для прицеливания на одном краю поля, в виде кирпича. За день солнце пробегает 12 сантиметров по кромке обсерватории, чтобы засечь эти сантиметры нужна прицельная планка (другой кирпич), целиться нужно передвигая второй кирпич, под глазом. Можно конечно в два раза увеличить поле наблюдения – в этом случае кирпичи будут поболее, главное чтоб человек наблюдательный был.

За 365 дней произойдет второе пересечение линии весеннего равноденствия, место  пересечения будет смещено по отношению к предыдущему году,  отметина не совпадет влево на 1-2 сантиметра, можно конечно плюнуть на ошибку – а можно расширить базу наблюдения в два раза. Еще пару лет и подтверждение готово - солнце в течении трех лет делает три маленких шажочка и затем большой прыг назад, в первую позицию. В английском так и называется високосный год (leap) и прыжок(leap). В нем и получили точность 1 год = 365+365+365+366=1461/4=365.25 дней.

Продолжаем наблюдения – еще 43 года и Мэри-Мери! Чудеса! – вместо раз-два-три-четыре солнце сбивается на такт вальса – раз-два-три. Подсчет дней дает 15706, или 365.255814 дней в году, ошибка 1 день за 1821 год.

Следующий сбой такта, в весенние дни придет через 39 лет. Никто так долго не живет, 82 года с начала календаря, но наблюдение заслуживает внимания – високосные года должны сдвигаться - первая сдвижка в 43 года, вторая через 39,  если принять такой календарь, то длинна года 365.2560976 дней и точность 3767 лет, уже что-то. Здесь было бы уместно закомпостировать мозги молодому поколению очарованием ненужных цифр. Ученики, если их правильно организовать продолржут наблюдения в веках.

Че-там дальше. Чем-то больше. В 121 году 44196 дней, точность 6073 года. В 160 году 58441, ошибка 8849 лет. В юбилейный,  в 199,  один год равен 365.2562814 дней, достаточно чтобы не обшибиться в 12255 лет.

Следующие 39 лет пройдут странно и загадочно. Работы ученым по правде сказать не много. Неделю наблюдений в год, а болтологии! А ресурсов – целую площадь в центре заняли, маисом их корми задарма, а тут сгниет за плесенью картофель на корню. Не дело. Надо чтоб польза была, хоть какая! Хоть процесс перегонки алкоголя. Хотя этих студиозов, что с присмотром, что без, они и сами колеса придумают. Короче – темная часть календарной истории – что можно было накуриться, чтобы начать проверять все сосчитанные дни на деление с остатком на все простые числа от 7 до 17. Не судите строго древних  – их технология палочки и веревочки в век компьютерной безграмотности демонстрирует хорошую усидчивость, находчивость и зоркость глаза. Да и не забывайте, не такая уж это сумасшедшая идея - сегодня на изучение деления с остатком компьютерные гиганты и государства тратят большие деньги без остатка – как зашифруешь свою коммуникацию так ее и раскодируют, делимое есть открытый ключ, а в остатке, сообщение.

Короче, крутых мира сего уболтали, деньги на маис выделили и через 39 лет, вот, он, триумф науки и техники! Ликующие граждане бегают по площади воображая свое счастье, ликуюшие гражданки срывают себя что-то и бросают в воздух понимая свое счастье, дети плачут от радости, инкстинктивно догадываясь, что все это придется учить в школе! Прорыв в картине мироздания! 86931 дня разделить на 13, получилось 6687 и остаток НОЛЬ. В году 365.2563015 дней, ошибочка в 16533 года.

На этом судя по всему удача закончилась. Финансирование науки продлили, но следующее число 101176 на 13 не разделилось. Подбили результат, уточнили ошибку - 1 день в 22068 лет. Во избежании конфьюза организовали два календаря. Один официальный, другой основанный на числе 13, секретный, во избежание позора. Финансирование заморозили. Для наглядного примера верхушку академии оставили без маиса. Изобретайте мол, да знайте меру. Из абсерватории устроили лобное место. В астрологию  поступать желающих больше не было, зато на химфаке по 13 человек на место. Что еще в такой интерпретации – 13 дней в неделе и два календаря, сходятся. Начало отсчета и окончание  – високосные годки начинаются не с нуля, нужно учесть смещение, что и будет нулевой точкой. Бывает. Был бы другой орбитальный период земли – прощай число 13. Вот на Тау Кита явно другой, и тау китяне радушны!

Другой вопрос – что притягивало делать подобные открытия, и что тупо тормозило прогресс? Наличие ошибки само по себе, или доступность информации? Фон Браун и Королев искренне надеялись, что на Марсе можно жить. Если бы мэтрам космонавтики была доступна сегодняшняя информация с Куриосити ровера, у Куриосити не хватило бы curiosity(любознательности) добраться до соседней планеты. Знай Колумб правильный радиус земли и провинцию Канады наверняка бы назвали не Британской Колумбией.

А все таки ошибка первична. С удачей. И Википедий и Интернетом, и

с Новым 2013 Годом, Вас, 10-А класс, Донецкой школы.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1PthHpFJP9A

December 28, 2012     ALUMINUM. 3D PRINTING.

Thanks, V. Existing, formulas about aluminum extraction process in vacuum and 1/6 earth gravity.

1. Conductive aluminum surface as forming layer for 3D printing part.

2. Al2O3 distributed by electrostatic on top of forming layer.

3. K3ALF6 as a catalyst, distributed by PVD (physical vapor deposition) precisely on a place of a next slice of a printed part.

4. Beam of electrons on the same square area: Al3+ + 3 e−-> 2Al ; O2− - 2 e−-> O ; K3ALF6 evaporates and can be reused.

In vacuum do no need for a carbon electrode – oxygen will be separated without chemical reaction. Also electrical current in vacuum better be done by emitted electrons. Surface of particles are big for unit mass. In 1/6 gravity different fractions does not separates properly, but it will be layer of Al2O3 , isn’t it? Is it possible to reuse K3ALF6? How to collect O2 effectively?

Well, bicycle as it is. Legend from “Historia naturalis” about Tiberius and goldsmith, brought imperator “silver” looking, light, metal’s plate. On imperator’s question: “How did you make it?” Inventor replied: “From clay.” On next question: “Who else does know the process?” Inventor proudly said: “Only Me and Gods”. It was a mistake, to protect his recently investments in silver, imperator ordered to cut of inventor’s head. Nice, unconfirmed story was, until couple years ago some students got aluminum by technology and chemical components available 2000 years ago only. Again, bicycle’s invention is a bicycle invention. Needs to do this on The Moon, not on the earth! Anyway we do not know investments portfolio of other people.

What equipment will be needed to make such experiments?