Adobri Solutions Ltd
   Donate to history was removed        P2P web search portal    
Latest blog on: Blog was removed by GLXP in Feb 2019

Google+ no longer available

Jun 10, 2020 10 years in Google Lunar XPRIZE

Время подвести итоги участия комманды Team PlanB в GLXP.

1. Цель. Луна. Не достигнута.

2. Команда. Энтузиастов собрать не удалось.

3. Бизнес связанный с космосом. Ничего маломальски приличного запустить не получилось.

4. Наработки связанные с космосом. В современных экономических условиях не нужны.

5. Страна за которую выступала команда - Канада. Поддержки ноль с маленокой тележкой незначимых нуликов.

December 8, 2016 Letter From GLXP:

....On behalf of the Google Lunar XPRIZE I regret to inform you that your notification of launch contract execution has been denied.....

Last opened by GLXP path for Team Plan B is to fly under SinergyMoon team. But looks like Interorbital are be more in bussines than in orbital flights.

December 1, 2016 Notification for Launch Contact.

1. Letter about "Notification for Launch Contact" in last minutes.

2. Official submission Notification of Launch Contract Execution Team PlanB Adobri Solution.

3. Launch contract with Interorbital (in 2011 and on Dec 2016 Interorbital officially part of SinergyMoon). And wire payment (old-old-old).

NOVEMBER 29, 2016 Finally Envelope for Lunar Direct flight with crush landing. Ver 4. Pre-aprooved by ISRO.

Basically the idea is to reach and touch the Moon, nor more, nor less. It is possible to write letter to GLXP about launch contract. If GLXP will confirm to cover success of such scenario by some sub-prize (i.e. the event of landing or orbiting the moon), then that low budget project will be possible. Prices with ISRO is around 1.3 mil, and it will be enough to cover such attempt by 2-3 mil sub-prize. It is not full mission, as original GLXP, but the step in correct direction, low budget, and etc. Desision by GLXP.

NOVEMBER 29, 2016 Envelope for Lunar Direct flight with crush landing or orbiting. Ver 3.


NOVEMBER 28, 2016 Envelope Lunar Direct flight with crush landing or orbiting. Ver 2.1


NOVEMBER 26, 2016 AMOS-6 satelite, Canadian EDC bank.

Original article about Falcon-9, with AMOS-6, explosion on 1 September 2016 (text format).

Now the reason for a "conflict-of-interests", stated by MDA in 2014-2015, starts to surfacing. Confusions in a past, when attempts to talk to MDA was cut short, all MDA representatives refused to talk, and mentioned some "conflict". Looks like AMOS-6 was somehow connected to the SpaceIL mission, otherwise what will be the reason for a Canadian company to refuse to talk with another Canadian company about the Lunar mission?

Shortage of information about AMOS-6, brought another mistake done by our team - Export Development Canada (EDC) a state-owned enterprise wholly owned by the Government . EDC provides the financing up to 75% to export contracts from Canada. On their web site EDC stated – it is possible to finance up to 75% of contract value by EDC. Plus, EDC financing event allows to get the rest 25% of contract value (by a regular bank). Such trick allows to get 100% up front money before starting the job. It was the exact case for Team PlanB. With price on mission around 5mil, and contract with GLXP on 20mil, we missed opportunity to fly.

So pity.

Especially Alex was working in the same building with EDC, and regularly chatted with EDC officials over urinal in the toilet.

To compare - EDC bank financed AMOS-5 satellite on amount of 140 mil, and all millions ended up in the explosion.

But from another point - it is not bad at all! We did not evaporate any taxpayer's penny.


NOVEMBER 25, 2016 Envelope Lunar Direct flight with crush landing or orbiting. Ver 1.


NOVEMBER 20, 2016 Envelope Lunar Direct flight with crush landing or orbiting. Ver 0.1

NOVEMBER 16, 2016 Lunar Direct flight with crush landing or orbiting. Internals compartment.

NOVEMBER 16, 2016 Lunar Direct flight with crush landing or orbiting. PSLV adapter.

ON JUNE 11, 2014 01:37 PM PlanB - 2nd day at Yuzhnoye

ON JUNE 10, 2014 01:36 PM Team PlanB - First day at Dnepropetrovsk

ON JUNE 09, 2014 01:35 PM PlanB on their way to Dnepr

ON JUNE 07, 2014 01:46 AM Thank you Budapest!

ON JUNE 07, 2014 01:45 AM

During the 2014 "Google Lunar XPRIZE" summit @ Design Terminal in Budapest, three teams from the GLXP competition spoke about the benefits, current, and future use of 3D printing in the GLXP competition. The teams presented in the following order: Part Time Scientists, Team Plan B, Team Puli

ON JUNE 06, 2014 03:41 AM Time to party GLXP summit in Budapest

ON JUNE 06, 2014 03:39 AM Budapest

ON JUNE 06, 2014 03:37 AM Flight to XPRIZE summit in Budapest

ON JUNE 01, 2014 03:37 AM Preparation for a trip to Europe

pack rover, picosat, into a lagage

ON MAY 25, 2014 11:27 PM Embedded features of the communication protocol

1. Distance measurements embedded in protocol 100m precision, with orbit determination 10m precision and 1 m/sec speed measurements precision.

2. 2.4 GHz - 3 channels 1MHz each 30% loss of data restoration by 2-from-3 majority voting, or (slow restoration) 50% loss with only 2 channels available, with possibility to restore packets from communication DB.

3. Remote upgrade embedded inside protocol, ability to choose two different locations for compiled module implemented.

ON MARCH 23, 2014 05:40 PM From International Weekly Journal of Science "Nature" -

"Moon shots stuck on Earth"

well - we all live in a yellow submarine, and not The Money or Big agencies / Militaries propel the space exploration, but rather simple luck and nice view of the night sky.

Thanks you Nature.

ON MARCH 23, 2014 05:36 PM Software, software and nothing more than software

ON FEBRUARY 25, 2014 03:50 AM Thanks to Alex Hall, from team planB.

To Alex Hall: Alex, team PlanB is missing you!

It is sad that you are leaving the GLXPRIZE. You are the best, very gentle, we were enjoying to work with you. We hope that in a future space exploration we will work together again.

Best wishes to you from our team.

ON FEBRUARY 18, 2014 08:52 PM new antennas testing, extruder testing

After the pico-sat antenna's showed good deployment capability, comes tests of the performance both (sat's and ground station) antennas. All communications recorded on the mission control web site.

Testing the Universal Paste Extruder for 3D printers(, liquid paste works perfectly. Evaporation of the water on a heated table will allows to have small layers. A paste (less water in the mixture) needs to be adjusted.

ON FEBRUARY 10, 2014 10:35 PM Antenna and RF comm on one PCB. Mold inserts. Thermo-stabilizer

The antenna (a flat helical kind of version), and the RF part are printed on the same PCB. Verification are planned -

- mechanics of the antenna's deployment (done on Saturday) ;

- the antenna performance;

- all functionality - all RF ampl, BT front-end, and antenna itself;

- vibration tests (integrated into a pico-sat).

Inserts into the mold for printing messages (finally showed up from New-York, the record Christmas delivery). One insert creates one message on the surface of the wheel of the lunar rover. Message will be printed on lunar dust during rover movements.

First insert - First name - a teacher of physics from mining town Donetsk- Борц Илья Яковлевич.

Thermal stabilizer for vacuum oven.

ON FEBRUARY 03, 2014 12:39 AM Results on one metallurgy experiment (negative). Cubesat flat antenna design.

Thermal stabilized for vacuum oven did not work well. And all PCB for antenna has to be recalculated (no micro-strips on small square area).

SNAFU as usual.

ON JANUARY 27, 2014 10:40 PM Software, metallurgy, Antenna 2.4Ghz

Last week business. Redesigned antenna. Trajectory calculation capable to do distributed calculations. And re-fined vacuum chamber/ oven showed better performance.

Сводка за прошлую неделю ;-)

Теперь антенна будет плоская - несказанно рад - можно запихнуть в одну PCB, в то время как раньше она занимала минимум 8 х 8 х 96 мм. ПСБ упаковываются с двумя другими (отражателями будут) очень компактно. Развертка всей конструкции две пружины. Вся электроника должна уместиться на двух 3.5 х 2.5 дюйма - это значит при 20 часовой в неделе - 6 недель - 10 часов на прототип - 2 днф изготовление - 2 дня почта - 10 часов на проверку и пайку - и цикл повторяется - итого на третьем цикле - рабочая элктроника. Останется только промазать полиуриетаном (специальный и жутко дорогой). (Но софтвер еще не готов).

В выпечеке благодаря Виктору и Боре начали получаться постоянные результаты. Первое - печку надо чистить (нужен древестный уголь - только в русских магазинах можно купить - дуристика - в аптеках города нет - используют только в госпиталях - чтобы лечить наркоманов). Вторая причина - нужен температурный стабилизатор - что-то большое и железное, чтобы убрать гардиент температуры.

Перерисовал пакет с двумя двигателями - поместил на G+.

Переписал план полета.

И нужно закончить эту дурацкую веб-сайту - влез незнаю зачем - все повыпендиваться хотел - чтобы красиво было - нахрень красоту спасающую не знаю кого - но уже доделал - вэб-сайта готова к распределеенным вычислениям.

Sorry - no time for translation - if some body read this - use Google translate to English, pls.

ON JANUARY 20, 2014 05:52 PM Extruder, material for 3D printing, Gear for Ground station, etc.

Paste extruder finally showed up, material for 3D printing - copper-tin, copper-zinc, titanium-copper. gear for ground station and rover, vibration testing table.

ON JANUARY 15, 2014 04:21 PM Metallurgy. No titanium-aluminium alloys yet.

Not much results for 3D printing. 3 type of alloys so far - the titanium-copper (under layer of a titanium powder - argon is not good for small type owen, and helium conducts heat) - tin-copper , and zinc-copper. Aluminum is not successful at all. Needs to find blocker of O2 and N2 started to be liquid at 500C and boiling point up to 1100C. Window's glass is one possiblity. Tin and zinc - other.

Post office started to deliver delayed by Christmas items from 3D printing factory . Irony - 3D printer waits 3D printed parts to be able to 3D print 3D priter itself - what kind of Christmas's delays will be expect in case of 3D printed internet?

ON DECEMBER 31, 2013 08:12 PM Happy New Year 2014!

ON DECEMBER 24, 2013 02:35 PM measurements planning for Ti Cu alloy

There are limitations what we can choose as manufacturing facility for rover's parts. Best solution is to make parts in-house, but that require metallurgy and 3D printing at hand. Measuring strength of alloys is one of "must be" part.

ON DECEMBER 18, 2013 02:19 PM 12 chairs. “You know, my friend, that project reminds me …”

2011. My friend :-) “You know, my friend, Alex, you project reminds me the movie “Despicable Me” especially the part with boy’s dreams about flying to the moon.” Thanks you, my friend – Thanks you very much. Finally I did watch that movie. That reminds me:

... Киса знаете кого этот стул мне напоминает – нашу жизнь! Нас топят, а мы выплываем, но никого это не радует....

(Old story, - two companions are chasing 12 chairs. In one chair there are hidden diamonds. Partners are watching floating nearby gutted chair (previous unsuccessful attempt to find treasure). Monolog- “…You know, my friend, that chair reminds me of our life. We’re also floating with the tide ...)

Другой дружбан – сначала культурно напоил – а затем осторожно намекнул посмотреть фильм “Елки палки”. Посмотрел!

Открываю рубрику – "Дорогой друг, вы как лунатик напоминете мне ..."

I am opening the rubric – “You know, my friend, that lunatic reminds me...”

All similarities are welcome!

watch and enjoy sound track -

ON DECEMBER 11, 2013 06:21 PM Measurements (Episode 4,5,6)

- How strong satellite encryption algorithms? better than RSA 1024

- How documents creation process slow down design and development? 14 times (in our case)

- How many impulses needs to reach the moon? No measurements of the orbit == no answer.

On going development:

- distributed calculations of the orbit.

- material proved for printing metal parts on desktop 3D printer = titanium alloys.

ON DECEMBER 11, 2013 02:23 AM Titanium alloys investigation

That (Ti75%Cu25%) is perfect sample - strongest and solid practically without cavities.

That (Ti90%Ag10%) has cavities - mostly because of low silver. Probably with 20-25% it could be solid, more heavy and strong. Longer time in oven (around 820C) can help to reduce patches of not solidified grains.

- That is 2000 years old technology sample (nothing new in this world) - solid, strong, and non expensive (0.5-0.8 cents per cm^3). Probably that can bring bronze age back to houses.

And needs to find the (easy) way to measure all mechanical parameters of alloys.

Exruder needed

Existing paste extruders has that limitations:

- Material for printing limited by a syringe size (10-20 -200 cm^3)

- It is hard to make the small diameter extrusion - viscosity is high.

Probably needs to make the screw extruder. Dry powder is delivered by vibration via the plastic tube (thus less inertia parts for positioning mechanism). Once debugged using dry powder, so through the central part (with ball valve) delivers pressurized water with PVA - water. Ratio liquid / powder adjusted by (a) turning speed of the screw, and (b)the water's pressure. Small 100$ desktop compressor with an automatic pressure control will be preferable.

For the beginning the mold 3D printed from the plastic (for extruder) can be made. Then next step will be to 3D print the extruder itself.

Design with two extruders can allow combining two metals with different heat conductivity and strength.

see more on -

ON DECEMBER 08, 2013 11:13 PM New Titanium alloys for 3D printing.

From left to right.

Titanium 90% Silver 10% = density 4.7

Titanium 75% Copper 25% = density 5.1

Copper 75% Tin 25% (bronze) = density 7.8

Looks like now rover can be fully 3D printed from titanium. It will be less than hundreds euro per 1 cubic centimeter of a titanium and printer will be open source Mendel.

Wow! I do not believe myself.

ON DECEMBER 04, 2013 04:45 PM Biggest 3D printing factory in USA

Shapaways factory is trying different business approaches to get new customers. Ponoko tech support are trying to fulfill simple requests. And etc.

And Biggest in The World Minnesota's located 3D factory even did not bother to put advertisements - they just has contracts, and their millions dollars lines of 3D printers are busy with "manufacturing".

Больше, про бизнес и толкаемый им технический прогресс, пусть мне не заливают.

ON DECEMBER 02, 2013 12:14 PM Measurements. Thermal regulation of nano satellite with Peltier elements

Adjusting the temperature inside the nano satellite. Model. Measurements. The temperature difference measurements. Pelter's elements used as a passive regulator raises the temperature inside the controlled object. Active switch on and off Pelter element allows a use simple algorithm to regulate temperature.

Регуляция температуры внутри нано спутника. Модель. Замеры. Разница температуры. Пельтьер элемент включенный как пассивный регулятор поднимает температуру внутри регулируемого объекта. Активное включение и выключение Пельтьер элемонтов позволяет иметь простой алгориитм по регулированию температуры.

ON NOVEMBER 28, 2013 02:24 PM Last chance to get Lunaro Sterling Coin 2013.

2013 coin will be available till 31 December 2013.:

月unaro Sterling Silver. Coin, 28.7g; .925 silver; 0.85 ASW (0.85 troy ounce Actual Silver Weight); diameter 40.4 mm; thickness 3.0 mm; edge with the text "legal tender". Subject: Google Lunar XPRIZE. Obverse: nominal "1 月unaro", with text "Age of Aquarius" designer: Yuri Savenkov. Reverse: The far side of the Moon, with 28 stars, year 2013, designer: Universe. Coin produced by 3D printing technology only. Mintage: 545 (collectable).

Coin was designed to help space devotees-enthusiasts to reach their goals.

see details on -

ON NOVEMBER 25, 2013 04:28 PM Space education.

Wow! It is really amazing –

Future is in a “Space education” – 100 colleges and academies, 10 classes in each per year. To pass, each cadet does need to build a nano-satellite. Total, 1000 nano-satellites,- just 1 ton == one launch of a non-big rocket. But, 20,000 young people, experienced in building satellites by their own hands, each year!

It is THE FUTURE of the space exploration.

Hats off!

Таки да - это будущее!

100 коледжей - 10 классов в каждом, на орбиту нужно вывести 1000 нано-спутников по одному килограмму 10см х 10см х 10см, всего одна тонна на орбите. НО, какое РЕШЕНИЕ - 20,000 молодых людей умеющих своими руками собирать спутники - это гарантировоно через пять лет 100 Фон Браунов, Годдартов Королевых, Чертков.

Снимаю шляпу.

NOVEMBER 21, 2013 04:47 PM Messages to be printed on the lunar surface. December (in two weeks) I’ll start to print the wheel's spokes for the rover. I need the list of all of our classmates. 16 tires/spokes on the wheel. On each tire can be printed one or two names. Total (with two wheels) == 32 messages / names. Two or three spokes/tires are reserved for investors. Offer is non expensive, but they are picky and do not wish to buy messages. After the discount - one dollar for one message per year, at once, for the entire warranty time.

Therefore, on December I need a list == one name for one tire of our 1976 school class. The printing area on the tire is 1cm x 4cm. The warranty time of the message to stay on lunar surface (to take an account the modern state of space exploration) - one million years. One or two tires has to be reserved for our teachers - their investment into us were priceless.

Moonwalker. (Alex Dobrianski)


Response from Donetsk-

List of the names - (Needs to ask Igor which last name he want to place)

1. Анциферов Валерий
2. Белоусов Игорь
3. Бибик Юрий
4. Васильченко Игорь
5. Геженко Инна
6. Гефтер Валерий
7. Добрянский Александр
8. Елифёрова Галина
9. Кириченко Константин
10. Коган Елена
11. Краснопёрова Ольга
12. Кубарева Марина
13. Лившиц Олег
14. Чайковский (Мальч) Игорь
15. Любашевский Геннадий
16. Милославский Михаил
17. Пашутин Александр
18. Писарев Виталий
19. Плахотный Сергей
20. Плетнёва Оксана
21. Пугач Владимир
22. Сальников Николай
23. Серезентинов Геннадий
24. Скирка Ольга
25. Скокова Валентина
26. Степанель Нина
27. Стешенко Сергей
28. Хасин Станислав
29. Чернявская Наталья
30. Чумакова Светлана
31. Шамович Людмила
32. Шпак Александр
33. Ярёмич Алексей
Хурина Мина Львовна
Белоусова Ирина Викторовна
Борц Илья Яковлевич

NOVEMBER 20, 2013 01:44 PM Measurements. Comparison of two different paths to the moon.

Original approach was : non optimized LEO -trans lunar trajectory - correction impulse - brake engine - landing.

That require 250kg on LEO, with price tag 6,000,000$.

Alternative route - trans GSO flight, then trans lunar flight - brake engine - landing.

That can save tremendous weight (40kg instead of 250kg, with price around 2,000,000$), but data for trans GSO orbits (TLE) are not available to us. As a result it is hard to do any real estimations, speculations only. If somebody can share information about any past samples (preferable 3-4) of trans GTO orbits, we can be really appreciated for such data. Many thanks for Alexander Mikhailov for a tip about GSO orbits.

Спасибо Саше Михайлову за подсказку о полетах на геостационарные орбиты.

Такие полеты регулярны - как следствие цены более стабильные, и зная правильную переходную орбиту (и подстраивая ее к транс лунному перелету) возможно обойтись 40 кг вместо 250кг на LEO. это может резко удешивить весь проэкт с 6 лимонов до 2. Но - как всегда но - нужены образцы старых орбит - непонятно где их взять. Другая проблема - как разговаривать с хозяином спутника летящего на ГСО. Хотя вторая загвоздка не нова - это как на чемпионате мира по боксу - тежеловес ни когда не встречается с наилегчайшим весом.

NOVEMBER 18, 2013 11:52 PM Measurements. Algorithm's strength.

September we did set cash challenge with a prize 10 Lunaro == 2000$.

Nobody did decryption of the message on 10th of October.

In comparison with RSA factoring challenge 2000$ prize equal to find two prime numbers p & q such as n=pq with n length == 100 bit (key length) known.

We increased prize in October to 20000$ == 100 Lunaro silver sterling coins.

On 10th of November deadline nobody decrypted the message.

That mean the "Total Encryption" algorithm's strength is better that RSA 640 - (encryption used not long time ago on HTTPS servers) with length of the key 640 bits.

Today Team PlanB increase prize again - up to 500 Lunaro coins (100,000$) - our goal to prove that the "Total encryption" (in comparison with RSA) is better than 1024 bit RSA encryption. Details:

В сентябре был объявлен приз в 10 Лунаро (2000 Канадских долларов) - первый расшифровавший сообщение получал 10 серебрянных монет. Смысл конкурса сравнить алгоритм криптования "total encryption" с алгоритмом RSA. (RSA тоже объявлял конкурс и приз в 2000 баксов выдавался за раскрытие ключа длинной 100бит.)

Никто не забрал приз 10 октября и поэтому сумма была увеличена до 100 Лунаро (20,000). И снова никто за месяц не смог выиграть. С одной стороны это означает что алгоритм проиблизительно равен RSA-640. А с другой стороны нужно продолжать сравнение - сейчас приз равен 500 лунаро (100,000) до 10 ноября - кто может - расшифровывайте-

NOVEMBER 14, 2013. (From Google+ post) The decision about GLXP Milestone prizes.

After some consideration Team PlanB decided do not to participate in GLXP Milestone prizes. But because all documents was already prepared you can look at them – all available under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Lunar Mission Concept description

Imaging Subsystem, Development and Verification Plan

Imaging Subsystem, Technical Risk Assessment

Imaging subsystem, Media Plan

Landing subsystem. Development and Verification plan.

Landing subsystem, Technical Risk Assessment

Landing subsystem, Media Plan

Mobility Subsystem, Development and Verification Plan

Mobility Subsystem, Technical Risk Assessment

Mobility subsystem, Media Plan

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) face-off device (hockey puck / attitude control rotation wheel), and laser range finder

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) craft at Transfer GSO (Alternative flight path)

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) craft at TLO (after 3 Solid motors ejected)

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) craft with payload adapter

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) Craft

NOVEMBER 13, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) Some picture impact shield

NOVEMBER 11, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) Test mission description

The Nano-satellite will be discharged of all high volume capacitors, before being placed into a container, mounted on the launch vehicle. During design, it was was assumed that the power switch creates a short-cut for the electrical circuit, to satisfy the requirements of a Nano-satellite class launch.

After reaching orbit, Nano-satellite will be separated from the other nano satellites in the container, and the power switch will disconnect the short-cut circuit. At the same time, a small solar cell will start to charge the high volume capacitor of the main microprocessor. The charge used in the operation be ready after 30 minutes, to allow main microprocessor to run for next 1 minute at full speed, or with reduced speed continuously. Changing the speed from full to slow will be done by the microprocessor itself.

After main microprocessor reached its functionality, it will switch on the power plant microprocessor. The power plant will control attitude control and the orientation subsystem, to maximize current of the solar panel(s). It is the task of the power plant microprocessor to determine the orientation based on best solar power harvesting. It is not required on this step to orient or rotate the Nano-satellite to face one of the surfaces to the best illumination by the Sun.

After power storage, consisting of high volume capacitors, achieves some level (approximate 0.25 of max power), all subsystems of the Nano-satellite are powered and self-tested. This gives the command for opening the helical antenna. The antenna does not need to be opened if the Nano-satellite launches with an already extended antenna. In this case the Nano-satellite will use two units inside a container instead of one.

3 nichrome wires will be burned, one after another, and the antenna will be released. To extent the antenna to a working position, the attitude control and orientation subsystem will perform a prerecorded turn to lock the antenna in a fixed position, by two permanent magnets. A backup communication system antenna will be mounted on the opposing side of the helical antenna's reflector. From that moment, the CubeSat is ready for backup communication with mission control, and to send a message "I AM OK".

In a case of antenna opening failure, or failure of locking the antenna in fixed position, the backup communication will be ready to send messages to mission control.

The backup communication is performed using an Orbit Communication M-10 modem. It is not certified to communicate on aircraft, but Orbit Communication representatives confirmed that on-board a satellite, it was used in the past successfully. Communication of the Orbit Communication M-10 modem is initiated by applying power to its power pins, performed by the power plant subsystem. Then it needs to monitor the signal on the "satellite detected" pin. That pin provides detection of an Orbit Communication satellite in range of the M-10 modem. Each modem has unique identification. After sensing the Orbit Communication satellite, it is possible to send a 140 byte message to mission control, confirming status of the Nano-satellite on the orbit.

After sending the "READY" message, it can be 15-20 minutes before the Orbit Communication satellite reaches the ground station, to deliver the message to Earth. In this time Nano-satellite will collect raw GPS signals from two global navigation subsystems, and 5 different raw GPS satellites, collecting position and velocity together with time stamps. This will be next message to be transferred via backup communication subsystem.

Mission control can send commands to Nano-satellite using Orbit Communication's infrastructure, but the main task on this stage will be to process raw GPS data from the Nano-satellite, and attempt to determine orbit using raw data and trajectory calculation software.

After the parameters of the orbit are determined it will be possible to make an attempt to communicate by a ground station. Trajectory calculation software will determine the time and window of visibility for each ground station, and from the ground station, calculate the sequence of orientation vectors to be performed by the antenna of the ground station. The same calculation will produce angles of orientation of the Nano-satellite.

Now it is the task for the orientation and attitude control subsystem to achieve and hold orientation of the Nano-satellite. First there will be an attempt to use the solar sensor. The attitude control and orientation subsystem will try all possible movements performed by the 3 stepper motors, in all combinations. The gyro-platform will provide quaternions of rotations after each possible movements are performed by 3 stepper motors. The values of quaternions will be stored for later use. A period of the function of voltage, measured from one of the four infrared solar sensors will be performed, and movement by stepper motor will be used to maximize period. After a period reaches same predetermined value, there will be fine tuning, as all four infrared sensors have to produce the same photo-voltage value, which will be an indication of the Sun's position. That orientation is stored by the gyro platform, as a direction to the Sun. The next step will be attempting to detect, by two infrared sensors, the edge of the Earth. Here, the Nano-satellite will be put into a slow spin. Values from the two IR sensors will be recorded. A peak in the values will indicate the edge of the Earth. The orientations at the time of 4 peaks will give 4 vectors, enough to determine direction to the Earth. By knowing the time when direction to the Earth is detected, orbit parameters, and solar direction will give all data to orient Nano-satellite for communication session with the ground station. Indication to mission control that Nano-satellite is ready orient for a session is conformed by sending 2 vectors: the Solar direction, and the center of Earth's direction, and the time when that direction was found.

Mission control calculates the angles, and sequences of the antenna's directions based on Solar and Earth orientation. That sequence is send to the Nano-satellite using Orbit Communication infrastructure. The sequence of directions for the ground station will be sent encrypted, over internet. Both objects ready to perform the main task and main test for the mission.

The Nano-satellite orients itself based on Solar direction, and center of Earth direction (achieved automatically) and sequences of direction vectors transferred from mission control previously. The ground station (which is mechanically equivalent to a lunar rover) will turn it's antenna to the Nano-satellite. Communication session will be performed by a 2.4 GHz communication subsystem. All waiting data from Nano-satellite (like images made by low resolution camera, and HD video) will be delivered to the ground station. If the communication session is successful, than it is a green light for the main mission to the Moon.

Some additional tests will be performed. The ground station will be configured to a compact version. Here, the mobility of the rover will be stripped by removing part of the frame with one wheel, then another wheel will be removed, and the stepper motor shaft will be mounted on horizontal rotation holder. In such configuration one stepper motor is controlling horizontal rotation, and the antenna mount is controlled the second stepper motor. Software on the ground station has to adapt itself for 2 instead of 3 degrees of freedom, and properly orient the antenna for the next communication session with the Nano-satellite.

In another test, the communication system (located on a back side of the reflector of the antenna) will be switched to a 1mW ground station transmitter. Here the Nano-satellite must support the communication system because its low noise amplifiers must be capable of supporting communication.

Finally the communication system will be switched to 1 low noise amplifier, where the BT module with one 12.5 dB low noise amplifier will be capable of picking up signals from a 400 km distance.

NOVEMBER 09, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) Landing areas (main and backup)

Main landing point S2E15, and two backup landing points S2.1312E15.7745 and S1.08E15.44 (pictures from LRO/LROC)

NOVEMBER 09, 2013 (From Google+ post) Test Mission Designong

Before attempting to perform the main mission flight, the decision was made to use nano satellite type mission flight. For such a test mission, there will be the following key goals:

First – the orientation of a craft/satellite needs to be calculated with the precision of 0.3 degrees. If the is an error over 0.3 degrees, than the Moon is missed. If the nano satellite will achieve this precision, then it will be a green light for a craft itself.

Second – communication over two the channels (main and backup) has to be proved capable of transferring data to and from ground station(s).

Third – the requirements for the satellites needs to be passed, prior to placing a satellite inside a launch vehicle, and long before signing launch agreement. Passing ground tests is a good step, especially in an unknown territory, from the cradle of civilization, to the lunar surface.

Forth – ground station communication has to be developed and tested (ideally it will communicate with this satellite on low Earth orbit, in compact form, before the ground station in the form of a rover is sent to the Moon).

After brief consideration a decision was made – to try. As a result, trajectory parameter calculations were tailored for a proper low orbit (an essential part on the path to the Moon). Then another development was done - to create a working gyro platform.

Subsystems on the rover will be the same as on the nano-satellite: a camera unit (2 units looking in opposite directions), a gyro unit, a main computer with storage of data, a Communication unit, a backup communication unit, a power plant unit, an attitude control/orientation unit. If the development of such components will be successful, then the software can be re-used on a rover.

Backup communication: it is better to be capable of communicating with the nano-satellite even it is out of ground station reach. The is a decision to use existing satellite communication. Modems with such function appeared on the market over the last years: the restriction are temperature requirements. To overcome these, needs to place the modem into a sealed epoxy box and traverse connectors outside the improvised compartment. Power requirements on transmitter will be 1.5 Watt instead of 10 Watts for the main mission.

Main communication will be at 2.4GHz. This band is designated as a hopping frequency band: as long as the transmitter does not stay on the same frequency channel, there is no license required to operate on this frequency, and no restriction on antenna with power up to 4 Watts (in Canada) or 1 Watts in US. There are recently developed OEM amplifiers modules for this band, with transition power up to 1-2Watts. The key module for a 2.4 GHz transmit and receive is just regular a Bluetooth device. The software required: to be able to do error corrections on at long distances, with the "standard" BT repeating packet, or "standard" send/receive ACK/NACK, is not a practical way to do communications.

The power plant harvests as much energy as possible from the solar panel, and stores it in 6 capacitors for the test mission. High volume capacitors were chosen instead of batteries because of their better performance in temperature ranges. Range in temperature of -50 C to +125 C makes it suitable for the flight. The power plant needs to check which solar panel performs better, and what unit needs to get most power, then switch the source of power to discharge the capacitor's unit, delivering the power to the required unit. Performance of the power plant will be the main “source” of the information for a rover's redesign. The test flight of the power plant will be an ideal test of the latest harvesting techniques, and latest development of the solar panels. It was chosen to postpone the development of the power plant as much as possible. Industry developments in solar power harvesting sector is booming (something we can not say about the space industry), and waiting for a flight for one two years can allow to use new technologies during the flight. This approach is risky - in the space industry it is assumed that design of any system has to be frozen 1-2 years before a flight. Engineers responsible for the integration satellites into a flight vehicle can be reluctant to accept such an approach.

The camera module can be a prime element for orientation – it will not only deliver pictures, but the software in the main computer can detect the horizon and that detection can help to calculate the direction to the center of the Earth. The camera needs to be stripped from of optics, and a pin hole will be the main optical element. The quartz glass on the sensor has to be drilled to make a hole to avoid breaking in a vacuum. Such a system will work along side a solar sensor and infrared celestial body detector.

The orientation and attitude control module will have 3 small stepper motors (instead of 4 on the rover). The task for the modules will be to adapt rotation to keep required orientation calculated by gyro platform module.

The gyro - platform was the main development of 2011, we are happy with how it is working.

The frame of the satellite, according a specifications of a nano-satellite, has to be built within specific standards. On the market now there are a lot of different frame and nano-satellite kits available. Team Plan B decided to build our own frame: an antenna for a communication module has to be deployed, this is non a standard configuration. One of our partners, Jetasonic Technologies Inc, a company, based in Coquitlam BC, Canada, developed such a frame.

On the ground station, one of the tasks performed by the rover on its main to the lunar surface is to orient the antenna to the Earth for communication sessions. If we were to combine ground station with the rover (the rover is the same as the ground station), then both tasks designed of the rover and design of the ground station will be achieved simultaneously.

A test mission is considered essential by our team before any attempt to reach the Moon. It is premature to talk, to plan, or to build anything before the mission can be successful.

NOVEMBER 09, 2013 (copy from Google+ post) Main Mission Description

The primary mission will be realized by a planned direct flight to the Moon. A launch vehicle will carry the payload into Earth orbit. After separation from the launch vehicle, an automatic system check will take place, resulting in an “READY” messages being sent over a backup communications link to mission control, acknowledged the craft is ready to accept commands from mission control

At the same time, the craft starts an orientation sequence. The sequence includes a search for the Sun using a solar sensor. The direction vector to the Sun from the gyro platform data will be stored for a future use. If the solar sensor can not find the direction of the Sun, then orientation to Sun will be determined by the maximum current of one of the solar panels. The craft turns its solar panel to the Sun, to maximize the power harvest.

In all maneuvers, the craft uses an “adaptive attitude” system. The attitude system calculates 125/25 possible movements, performed by stepper motors, and records the resulting quaternions, representing spacial rotations, corresponding for each possible 125/25 moves. These values later allows a precise control of the direction of the craft, and to optimize require movements to reach orientation during flight.

The process to stop unknown rotations after separation, or after any "sleep" mode, will be done by a calculating the period of function, with measured voltage values, from the solar panel, or from the solar sensor. To stop rotation, which is equal to maximization of a measured period of the function, the first attempted movements will be the with biggest angle of rotation from 125 quaternion in the stored table.

After separation, and after "sleep" mode, on command from mission control and planned over backup communication, recorded GPS/GALELEO raw data will be will be transferred back to the mission control. Continuous recording of the raw signal is not necessary, and we only need to get 5-8 records from the navigation satellite of the past 30-60 minutes. That data will be analyzed in mission control, and orbit will be determined by trajectory simulation software running in distributed calculations mode. If the GPS system's raw data will be not available, the a raw stream of digitized data on L1 frequency will be recorded, with a later extraction of a raw navigational satellites coordinates and velocity data from recording on board.

After determining the orbit parameters, mission control sends a command for craft to find direction to the Earth. The craft then starts rotating itself with constant speed, and using an infrared sensors, detects edge of a Earth. Each crossing of the edge will be a signal to mark and store for processing the direction, provided by gyro-platform. The direction to the center of the Earth is determined via calculation. The adaptive attitude system has a special mechanism for tracking rotation movement without involving data from the gyro-platform. Rotation initiated from any still position can be reversed, and all movement commands can be repeated precisely in backward order by attitude controller. To confirm the period of the orbit, to preform orientation, craft perform rotation to conform Earth edge detection. It is not intended to keep constant track of the detection to the center of Earth.

When direction to the center of the Earth and direction to the Sun determined, mission control can a send sequence of orientation maneuvers to orient craft for communication session on the main communication frequency of 2.4GHz. The commands includes vectors in an on board system of coordinates and time marks for each vector. The attitude control linearly extrapolates vectors in the time between two time marks. If the linear extrapolation will be not possible, then mission control can reduce time between time marks. The session with ground station/mission control confirms the functionality of communication system. In these sessions, not only will the transferred telemetry data be sent, but also data from the imagining system.

From the communication session via main 2.4Ghz system, additional data will be collected, measurements of RF signal travel time from ground station to craft and back from craft to ground station. Two consequent "loop" measurement records can be used to determine orbit of the craft.

From that moment, all efforts will be concentrated on finding proper trajectory from LEO to the lunar surface. Some preliminary data about a possible orbit will be available. This data will be confirmed or adjusted based on measured data. Communication sessions will confirm functionality of the craft, and orbit parameters. If for some reason LEO will be lower than expected, then the effect of atmospheric drag in trajectory calculations needs to be adjusted.

Before first orbit correction payload adapter/ MLS adapter separated from a craft.

The first orbital correction firing will be the first task on the way to the Moon. The purpose of this firing is to allow the craft to stay on LEO orbit, before beginning the optimal trajectory to the Moon. Earth based calculations will calculate the direction and time of the impulse. The sequence of rotations and movements to perform this impulse will be the same as during the communication session. This orbital correction will be done 10 minutes after confirmation of the direction to the Sun, and the conformation of the direction to the center of the Earth. Before the firing, a command to point the craft's correction engine into the calculated direction will be executed. Rotation of the craft around the axis crossing the engine nozzle will be performed. This rotation is required to stabilize the craft during engine firing. In this operation, and similar, the pre-recorded 125/25 possible movement plays an essential part. After the impulse is done, pyro-bolts separate the part of the frame with the used shell of the engine. A decision to eject or keep this additional weight on board depends on the desired trajectory. The additional mass of the empty engines can be used to make the next impulse less in value. In any case, the stored quaternions of possible 125/25 rotations have to be re-evaluated because the difference in craft mass. During, the gyro platforms accelerometer will record values of accelerations to integrate measurements of the impulse.

The second LEO correction is planned after a longer duration in time after first one. In the time interval between these two corrections, the craft in orbit can perform numerous tests like confirmation of orientation, taking pictures of the Moon, and areas of the Earth. Here, the functionality of HD cameras can be verified, video can be transmitted. The duration of these session on LEO will be short: probably from 30 sec to 3 minutes maximum. HD video will be send over by portions, and 15 minutes of recording will require 2-3 days to transfer, using ground stations around the world. The second impulse makes an orbit correction before main burn impulse. Sequence of the movements will be the same as on the first correction: verification of the direction to the Sun, verification of the direction to the center of the Earth, orienting engine to the vector of firing, rotation around firing direction to stabilize craft in time of firing, and ignition at a specific moment of time. If the second correction brings craft closer to the Earth for a main burn, then air drug can slow down craft and second and third orbit will be impossible. After the second correction, there is a risk of de-orbiting after one or two orbit.

The main burn will occur approximately 1/2 orbit (30-40 min) after the second. Sequence will be: ejection of the shell of the used engine, stopping rotation (5 min), finding the direction to the Sun (5 min), finding the direction to the Earth (5 min), orienting craft's main engine to the firing direction (5min), rotation craft around firing direction (5min). This is 25 mins total in total which should be enough for 1/2 of the orbit. It will be desirable to have plenty of time been the second and main burns, but his depends on a chosen trajectory of the flight to the Moon .

After main impulse burn, the craft will be on trans lunar trajectory, there will be a short time window to collect as much information as possible for the trans lunar orbit determination. The GPS main, and GPS GALILEO front end RF system needs to record as much data as possible. GPS satellites flying at distances of 5 Earth diameters and their transmitted signal is beamed toward the direction of Earth. Ideal will be last, before leaving beam, recorded data. That max, far from the Earth, recordings will give max accuracy of "to-the-Moon " orbit determination. After that, on the way to the Moon it will only be possible to measure RF signal travel time. The error in orbital position at this part will be much bigger than on LEO. From that moment, until next orbit correction(s), an expected 2-3 days will pass. Another method of orbital determination is to measure 3 directions, each in different time - to the Sun, to the center of the Earth (which has good visibility on trans lunar trajectory), and to the center of the Moon (which will have bad visibility from a craft). Based on these measurements, and times, it will be possible to get 3 point on the orbit. Repeating the process can give another 3 coordinates. On the way to the Moon communication sessions become longer, and ground station shifts around the world become more permanent. Windows of communication sessions when 2 ground station simultaneously can see the craft are important in determining the orbit. Such events are planned with the pairs of Donetsk and Kazakhstan, as well as Hawaii and Cook Island. These pairs have near perpendicular connecting lines. This will allow to measure the RF signal time to better estimate the trans lunar trajectory.

The word "orbit" means something flying around another body without collision, and it assumes parameters like period, inclination, and 5 others values to be converted into to useful information numbers. Because in our simulation software, the orbit can be calculated from position and velocity vectors, we take this vector as a prime source of all decisions. For determination the orbit, we take in account value of impulses recorded by gyro platform accelerometer. Error in impulse's calculations will be less than error in position measurement by RF signal travel time. Trying in trajectory calculation / orbit's determination to match values for a position, we assumes the velocity is less voluntile. Distributed calculations can match the results, done by a series of measurements. The gyro-platform accelerometer records 3 axes of accelerations values.

The impulse # 4 on the way to the Moon is essential to choose a landing point. Coordinates of the landing can be different from planned because of imperfections of main impulse burn. The main impulse by itself does not brings craft to the Moon. Correction is mandatory, otherwise the craft will miss the Moon. Preliminary study showed that changing direction of the firing with a fixed firing time, gives the same flexibility on the landing point, but precise targeting is impossible because of the nature of fixed impulse engines. The calculated error was 600m on latitude and 300 on longitude. In the case of flight with help of a gravitation of sun and moon landing time will be at lunar night, best precision (less error) at targeting the landing point depend on lunar time. If time close to sunrise, then error will be bigger, if time close to "lunar midnight" precision is better. The ideal will be landing at Sunrise point (terminator line on the moon) in a flight mission with help of gravitation of the Sun and the Moon

On trans lunar trajectory the orientation of a craft become the challenge: only the direction to the Sun can be correctly determined. Two maneuvers are performed every half an hour: a picture of the Moon and a picture of the Earth, then the data is transfers to the Earth. The picture of the Earth (the Sun at this moment will perfectly eliminate the Earth) will accompaned with the old vector of the direction to the Earth (drifted value). At mission control adjustment value vector can be calculated and that correction will be delivered as a earh correction. Gyro-pplatform to perform such oparation needs to be running with 'zero-drift" presision of 0.5 degree per 30 min minimum.

Before correction of the trajectory based on orientation data from solar sensor the direction of the engine's firing can be set. This command will be next after rotation of the craft, and ignition in preset time. The integrated value of impulse will be recorded. The shell of the engine will be ejected. The acceleration vector data of the impulse will be transferred in a communication session to the Earth, in 20 minutes after craft stabilizes itself. The impulse value can be the last "reliable data” for that part of trajectory. Possibility of a additional correction on trans lunar trajectory can be considered instead first or second low earth orbit correction (it require different mount of the fixed impulse engine of the craft's frame). That fourth correction is less accurate. Available information to determine orbit will be direction vectors to of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, and time when vectors measurements was done. We hope that time measurements performed by the communication system can be useful during next 24 hours. The forth correction engine has to be ejected without use.

Next are the last moments before the landing on the Moon. The Moon will be close to the craft and it is possible to use the same sequence as on Earth orbit: to rotate the craft by detecting the edge of the Moon with 2 infrared sensors, and calculate the direction to the Sun by solar sensor. Next task is to orient the craft that the break solid state engine placed to the desired firing direction (direction vector is different from an vector direction of trajectory and lunar surface. The craft is rotated (by attitude system's last rotation wheel == hockey puck== face-off device) and engine ignition will now be based on data provided by a laser range finder. In a study provided in 2011, it was around 24km from the Earth surface and 4 sec before impact to the Moon . Precision of the ignition (in study) was 10ms, and error was around 300m on top of lunar surface. Burn of the last engine takes 20 seconds, and that time, when engine burns, it also ignite the pyro-bolts to prepare for the separation of the engine shell from the landing craft (6 kg in mass) consisting of the rover and impact shield. Rotation of the rover and impact shield will be compensated by carbon fiber spring, released on separation.

Calculations done in 2011, showed that landing point can have error in longitude of 600 m, latitude of 300 m, speed 10-15m/s. In 2011 study the expected landing time was 6-24 hours before Sun rise.

At ignition of the brake engine, the HD camera starts to record video.

From the moment of landing, the mission will be moved to a mobility phase.

NOVEMBER 04, 2013 12:04 AM @ Sunday

As it is:


OCTOBER 30, 2013 01:42 PM Petroleum companies. The Haven?

When oil and gas company dies, its soul flies to a Titan, satellite of the Saturn, where it reincarnated into a new hydrocarbonate form of life.

Wow! May be that is a reason for petroleum companies to be involve in the space exploration!

Imagine headlines - "The First delivery of 10 gallons of gas directly from Saturn orbit into tank of a mobile car on historic highway 5." " Now you can drive from Vancouver to Los-Angeles without stop on gas stations".

Anyway interesting arcticle:

OCTOBER 27, 2013 08:13 PM Titanium + Ag + graphene

Titanium 70% + Ag 20%+ graphene (low grade - not expensive) 10%+ 820C + vacuum 10mmHg- perfect mixture = left picture powder was pressed under 1424psi, on right two pictures was much less.


It is nice to have old, broken vacuum oven, impossible to fix.

Just fixed broken part, and - amazing results!

OCTOBER 16, 2013 10:36 PM Happy thanksgiving, Canada. Space Shuttle's Paradox.

Engineer who had made a mistake in design of complex systems, with a technical vital parameter twice less than was required, probably will not be an engineer again.

Best engineers,  designers, advisers, economists, managers, did the design of Space Shuttle's system with one of vital requirements - to reduce costs. On the first flight it was calculated to be 5000$  per 1kg on the orbit, at time of full fleets readiness - 1000$, and at year 2000 it should be 100$ per 1 kilogram of payload on Low Earth Orbit. Space shuttle retired, and closest business "SpaceX" asked (in 2011) from Team PlanB about 180,000$ per 1 kg on LEO.

Paradox - engineers who reached The Moon got wrong in the vital parameter of the system 1000 times, not just twice. 

"where is the difference?". 

Question is interesting from a practical point to find the solution- If for this invisible structure, with antimatter inside, will be interest to make any deal, then path to the moon will be opened again.

----------Translation for my friend Шура-------------------------

Парадокс Космического челнока.

Инженеры допустившие ошибку при проектировании технического параметра системы более чем в два раза (мост построенный до середины реки, например) обычно должны сменить род своей работы.

Лучшие инженеры и экономисты разработавшие систему Шаттл ошиблись в 1000 раз, а не вдвое (на первых полетах стоимость 1 кг доставки на орбиту должна была быть 5000$, после создания флота 1000$ и в 2000 году цена должна была упасть до 100 долларов). Парадокс.

Вопрос - "куда деваются деньги?" - практичен - если эта дырка согласится на какое либо соглашение, то будет реальный шанс долететь до луны.

OCTOBER 13, 2013 12:24 PM Satellite communication encryption. Status – good!

In past was proved practical way to check strength of the encryption algorithms by setting the challenger via offering money for attempts to break encryption key.

I.e. see old "RSA factoring challenge" with prices up 100,000$ per breaking of algorithms used in HTTPS protocols.

We did set first challenger for our TOTAL encryption as 10 Lunar == 2030$. And nobody was able to decrypt message in 1.5 month in a case when source code was in open-source domain. It mean that strength of our satellite communication encryption is higher than 2000$. Let's do check again, but now with 100 Lunaro sterlings, which is equal to 20,000$.

Decrypt published message before November 10, 2013 and get that money.

Details, source code are on

Чтобы проветить возможностьи алгиритма крипторафирования на практике, применяется стандартный трюк - алгоритм публикуется вместе с неким зашифрованным сообщением. За расшифровку сообщения (нахождения ключа) предлагаются деньги. Лаборатория RSA криптования например с 1991 по 2007 год предлагала различные суммы до 100,000$ за взлом 1024 битного ключа.

Так как никто, за месяц, не смог расшифровать сообщение в нашем алгиритме криптования спутниковой коммуникации за 2000 долларов (извиняюсь 10 лунаро стерлингов), то опубликованный алгиритм "дороже" 2000.

Продолжим проверку алгоритма - объявление от 10 октября 2013 года - кто расшифрует опубликованное сообщение до 10 ноября 2013, Team PlanB выплачивает 100 лунных стерлингов, что в эквиваленте 20,000$ детали -

OCTOBER 11, 2013 07:39 PM Whiskers.

It is not what makes cats attractive in a spring time. That small forest is from tin, crystals grown in vacuum - "tin whiskers". Nothing attractive, if to keep in mind that 1mm whisker (grown in 1 hour) can short-circuit two electronic conductors on PCB.

To properly deal with it needs to cover PCB with polyurethane. Not just regular polyurethane, but - you know - with low outgassing in vacuum.

Funny looking, abstract pictures, anyway!

OCTOBER 02, 2013 12:46 PM Tech experiment - 3D printing metal parts in conditions similar to Lunar surface

Technological experiment on the way to 3D printing metal parts on a lunar surface.

Direct Metal Evaporation And Condensation method.

- lunar regolith consists with some, non zero amount of metals;

- extraction of different metals, can be done by applying different temperatures;

- vacuum conditions allow to do this with precision;

- Direct Metal Evaporation will be done inside evaporation chamber directly from a lunar regolith, or from already extracted metals;

- Condensation of the evaporated metal can be done on even surface with temperature up to 200C;

- Evaporation chamber can be positioned by applying the 3D printing technique;

Other technique - condensation surface can be a cavity formed by applying parts to a surface, and evaporation chamber could be fixed till a moment when metal will fill up mold's cavity.

Well, it is slow, but it can be precise, and in a case of remote controlled from the earth time is not critical.

Promising part of the story - on the Earth and at zero-gravity the same technique allows to 3D print parts with better precision than existing technologies.

SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 01:46 PM Word "sterling" (from dictionary)

Sterling - easterling, LL. esterlingus, probably from Easterling, once the popular name of German trades in England, whose money was of the purest quality.

`Certain merchants of Norwaie, Denmarke, and of others those parties, called Ostomanni, or (as in our vulgar language we tearme them), easterlings, because they lie east in respect of us.'' --Holinshed.

``In the time of . . . King Richard the First, monie coined in the east parts of Germanie began to be of especiall request in England for the puritie thereof, and was called Easterling monie, as all inhabitants of those parts were called Easterlings, and shortly after some of that countrie, skillful in mint matters and allaies, were sent for into this realme to bring the coine to perfection; which since that time was called of them sterling, for Easterling.'' --Camden.

In - other words - to boost the trade, needs to print nice silver coins.

SEPTEMBER 21, 2013 12:45 PM Two moons.

two moons - one at central ground station location, another on a route to the remoute

SEPTEMBER 16, 2013 01:03 PM Outgassing, epoxy 526N, molding methods. Comm+BT+FLASH memory.

Outgassing. Carbon fiber molding - all steps with epoxy (to get proper part for a space flight).

Reason for outgassing is the classical example - flakes from star sensor's tube confused sensor and unmanned flight was lost.

Outgassing test is main in certification of any equipment for a space flight.

Fixing conflict of writing data to a FLASH memory with simultaneous request from RF core transmitter (Bluetooth) and serial (comm) loop.

Эпоксдка аремко 526N - -70-+300 цульсия. Карбон файбр с этой епоксидкой после затвердевания как ежик - каждая маленькая ниточка превращается в острейшую тончайшую иглу, все пальцы исколол. Полный цикл - 1 час в вакумной камере (10-15мм) для удаления пузырьков воздуха, 12 часов застывание при комнатной температуре, 3 часа при 92цульсиях, затем растворение ПВА формы в воде, второе запекание при 165ц ==2 часа ,и 9 часов ==200ц с вакумом = 1мм

Тест на газирование основной для сертификации любого компонента к полету.

Классичексий пример недачного материала - черная краска на звездном датчике зонда-4 - датчик реагировал на отвалившиеся кусочки краски, как на настоящую звезду.

SEPTEMBER 13, 2013 02:49 PM Camera view on launch.

Cape Canaveral, Aug 7, Delta4 launch, with military communication satellite WGS. Engine RS-68 + GEM 60 solid rocket motors. On orbit it will be XIPS (xenon-ion thrusters), and flexible radiator pipes (allowing to increase radiator area)

SEPTEMBER 12, 2013 12:48 PM Interesting article about encryption.

Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator.

About BBC's article: (and more official version of what happened is on, original from


All decisions of "approved" / "not-approved" encryption algorithms, based on "SP-800-57" and the document uses definition of word "strength".

As it is specifies on page 61: "…two algorithms are considered to be of comparable strength for the given key sizes (X and Y) if the amount of work needed to “break the algorithms” or determine the keys (with the given key sizes) is approximately the same using a given resource".

Nobody disagree with such approach. And even more, next paragraph stated: "Determining the security strength of an algorithm can be nontrivial."

Basically document points that "strengths" of encryption is “speculation” - nothing more.

But on page 63 presents Table 2 "Comparable strengths". Table is a central and main source, in ALL arbitration of : “ be approved" / "not be approved" / “recommended” / “non-recommended” algorithm/random number generators (in terminology of document DRBG – “Deterministic Random Bit Generator”), and that table consists of "speculations" - i.e: AES-256 has more "strengths" than AES-128 (!), or RSA compares with AES (!??!), or with Elliptic curves encryptions.

Actually. That table is the prime source for those articles (mentioned above).

In our "Satellite Communication Protocol" product we decided to use non-speculative, real secure solutions (random-number-bits sequence) to satisfy high expectation of our future customers.

SEPTEMBER 09, 2013 11:59 AM Printed Music and etc.

Music, molds, coins, wheels, all was 3D printed. But it is not enough to reach The Moon. Essential to have a software and more important - people who will debug invisible sequence of bytes, stored in floating gates, insulated all around by an oxide layer, of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors.

Музыка, форма для отливки, монеты, колеса, все в этом клипе было отдруковано на трехмерном принтере. Но этого не достаточно чтобы дошкарбуваты до луны. Ще потрiбно програмне забезпечення, и люди которые отладят последовательности небачимих досель (и после) байтов, записаных за допомогою инжекции электронов в плавающие затворы полевых транзисторов, з використанням большой напряженности электрического поля у тонком диэлектрике.

AUGUST 30, 2013 01:00 PM Assembly. Wheel. Satellite communication. Encryption. Challenge 10 Lunaro Sterlings.

Encryption Challenge. Prize = 10 Lunaro Sterlings:
decipher the message (click to get exact ciphertext):

- source code, and executable provided,
- key (used for encryption),
- original video (used for key generation) inside this video.
- sample encryption/decryption.

Correct decryption, first, provided before 10 October, 2013 == 10 Lunaro Sterlings award (2020USD Deciphered text send via e-mail to with subject "Encryption Challenge. Prize" and one line of deciphered text.
Available -
- source code:
- key file used in encryption - 111.tkey
- video used in key generation - in current clip.
- sample: text un-encrypted:
cipher text after encryption (same key 111.tkey used):
after decryption:
interesting article about elliptic curves :

Приз – 10 Лунаро Стерлингов.
Первый расшифровавший сообщение до 10 октября 2013 года получает приз – 10 Лунаро Стерлингов (стоимость сегодня 2020$б стоимость 10 октября – 2030USD

(кликните ниже чтобы загрузить точный шифротекст):
=65000000a000000000000000ed45a19834912670eeaace8cc71a0da73a27aa9cff844d1fdc177c1794a5a3913f4757bcfb55a2a4f dda15ca0d0c3a811f3bb68233100d3f6f1f6bda9cdcf60cada1b2f776bf74a4ac66631efe07ff2be56771d058fd9d439517c773adbf7180a3ad0835f1=
Для расшифровки предоставляется
- исходный код программы шифрования
- исполняемая программа для windows (там же)
- ключ использованный для шифрования 111.tkey (там же)
- видео файл используемый для создания ключа
- пример
text un-encrypted:
cipher text after encryption (same key 111.tkey used):
after decryption:

Криптовальная программа предназначена для создания ключей шифроблокнотного типа для обеспечения защиты передаваемых данных между космическими аппаратами и наземными станциями связи, расположенными удаленно от центрального пункта управления полетом. Данный приз предназначен для проверки метода шифрования коммуникации спутниковой связи, предоставляемого Adobri Solutions Ltd на “open source” основе.

Anekdotes - Aug 30, 2013
Moscow Provincial Gazette in 1848: "Le Bourgeois Nikifora Nikitin for seditious speech on space flight to exile in the Kazakh Baikonur settlement."
Московские губернские ведомости 1848 год: "Мещанина Никифора Никитина за крамольные речи о полете в космос сослать в казахское поселение Байконур".

Sandwich, if ejected into space, then sticks to the outside part of the orbital station's porthole.
Бутерброд, выброшенный в открытый космос, прилипает снаружи к самому чистому иллюминатору станции.

Чебурашку послали в космос.
Он сбился с курса и прилетел на планету, полностью населенную такими же чебурашками. Эти чебурашки подходят к нему и говорят: "Ты знаешь, что ты - последний чебурашка, которого нам не хватало? Ты последний элемент.
Теперь энергии чебурашек достаточно, чтобы строить гигантский космический корабль, чтобы захватить всю вселенную! Старуха Шапокляк на самом деле - наш лидер. Она улетела за тобой на Землю, чтобы доставить сюда. Все это не случайно. Давай строить корабль-убийцу."
Чебурашка согласился, и они вместе стали строить гигантский звездолет-убийцу. Под конец дня Чебурашка устал и заснул...
Будит его крокодил Гена.
- Чебурашка, вставай! Я с тобой пить больше не буду! Ты вчера под конец кричал, что чебурашки захватят вселенную, а шапокляк - вождь чебурашек!

Space. Space station in orbit. At the door, strapped on a rope hanging astronaut and bang on the window with his hands and feet:
- Open up! What a stupid habit of asking, "Who's there?"!

Открытый космос, на орбите космическая станция. У люка, пристегнувшись на тросе, висит космонавт и барабанит в стенку руками и ногами с ревом:
- Открой, кретин!!! Что за идиотская привычка спрашивать: "Кто там?"!!!

- Чтобы в космос полететь, надо очень захотеть, - приговаривал таракан, протискиваясь под обшив космического корабля.

AUGUST 19, 2013 01:10 AM Update.

Two words: 3D printer, GPS/Galeleo

AUGUST 13, 2013 03:14 AM Lunaro Sterling coin. Space money that propel space exploration.

Let's talk today about Lunaro Sterling Coin,which we think can lift Team PlanB, and not only us, to the moon.
If you look closely on "Space progress" in past 60-70 years, what you can see is milestones and breakthroughs were achieved by space enthusiasts like Goddard, Tsiolkovsky, Von Braun, Korolev.
Even today not many people will assign their life, and devote efforts for goals like making Mars habitable for human kind, or to build "space villages", capable to fly to other stars.
Theoretical calculations and stipulations, can be met with low resources. But practical implementation like building controllable explosions to propel payloads into the orbit, requires high resources.
At present and as it was in the last 60 years, nobody will vote -- "pro", to send chunk of money to the sky. The same chunk of money that is equivalent to building a small city.
But each action creates an opposite reaction in this universe, and such practical obstacle, as resources, century ago enthusiasts by-passed them with a smart move.
They promised for men with chevrons on shoulders to deliver dangerous payloads to any place on the globe by simple press of a button.
This decoy in goal worked for enthusiasts. And because of that they were employed, and each minute, every moment, when men in uniform was busy with nasty toys, enthusiasts use this opportunity to reach different targets - to build bigger rocket engine, launch satellite, that left their mark in space, on the moon.
Then, enthusiasm died. "Space progress" has killed the enthusiasm as reaction to massive "action".
Imagine: if the data from "Curiosity rover" would be available to Von Braun and Korolev. Such knowledge will deter any enthusiastic curiosity, because they would see human life on mars an impossible goal.
What choice do enthusiasts have today?,At best, probably, to make a movie. (As we do it now ) It can be done in color, in 3D, better be by a famous film director. And the movie can be watched in Dolby sound, together with popcorn, or on a smart phone on the way to work. Making it perfect sustainable approach.
What else? Crowd-sourcing? On Kikstarter, only one Google Lunar XPRIZE project was funded: "to write the article about the Lunar Google XPRIZE competition", and all other 3 technology-related projects did not reach funding level.
The National Space Agency and military will not support space enthusiasts. In the National Space agency, where enthusiasts are greeted with smile all and every time? Military is satisfied with their "status quo" - they are happy with their offset contracts and support of last century weapons technology.
Skip the business. Business usually interested in cheap "leftover" from space technologies. Even the mining industry with a 10-20 years return of investments period, hesitates to be involved.
It is common sense - if one wants to do something in The Space - it is just, their own problem.
It is essential to invent some independent mechanism to fund "Space devotees", to fund what people can create outside of the Earth surface.
In Team PlanB, we have made our attempt - it is Lunaro Sterling Coin.
First, it is merchandise. We can sell it, the same way as we sell t-shirt.
Second, as a coin, it is valued. It is made from silver. After each 2000 prints, a new design will be made to satisfy criteria: less mintage - more numismatic value.
Third, each coin has a certificate of authenticity provided online. The person owning the coin can set anonymous authentication by himself/herself. The owner of the coin can be changed only by providing such authentication.
More importantly the coin can be used as a barter payments, for service and equipment, outside the Earth surface.
It is similar to the crowd-sourcing approach, but it also keeps doors open for other funding possibilities. Instead of shares investor can purchase coins.
Truly speaking, IT IS "Space money".
In all regulations and laws, it is treated as merchandise. Merchandise on which taxes are paid. Merchandise that cannot can not be prohibited, in any part of the globe, to act as barter's payments for anything not belonging to this world. It is intended to be more than just circulating money, or payment method in Space.
It is designed to lift-off the technology from the earth surface.
"Space money" that does not have national boundaries, and takes advantage on the fact that space does not belong to any national jurisdiction.
The owners of the coins have the power to decide, how, and at what price to sell "Lunaro Sterling"
Team PlanB is ready to share "Lunaro Sterling Coin" design and authentication process with "Space devotees / Space enthusiasts" all over the world.
We do this because we think this is logical, innovative, effective, and “cool” approach to fund space enthusiasts.
What will happen if "Space devotees/ enthusiasts" fail to achieve their objectives and not reach their stars? Well, it will be nothing new in this world. However the coins, will tell the story.
Other updates for last week – communication protocol was ongoing project, (you can visit Github to see and download updates).
RF noise pattern recognition was on hold.
RF Front end prototype for GPS and Galileo system was obtained to develop and to debug positioning software.
Also on Github you can find 3d mold for wheel central holder.
It should be combined technology some elements of the mold (precision) will be made from alumini plastic, some (expendable) from PVA.
We look forward to seeing you again.

AUGUST 11, 2013 01:31 AM Phone call from investor.

Video update is not ready again – Serg is busy decrypting Alex’s sentences from a ferry Nanaimo - Vancouver.
Instead of Video - just a story, just a story, fresh, from Friday. -
19:30. 3D printer started its 6 hours job, phone call:
- “I am Bla-bla from, to bla-bla credit, you bla-bla years, we bla-bla zero, with bla-bla presents, offer-shmoffer, would you?…”
Usually I listen till first “Bla”, but brandy already expanded blood’s vessels, and comfortable music from stepper motors together with extruder began to circle a foundation of a model’s formation, I laid back and answered:
– “Yes, I’d like”
Other side was excited, and after 10 minutes of verifications – conformations about tricks on tipple percentage of hidden fees, and last name of my mother before she become pregnant, both sides come to a sacral moment. Credit Card was ready to lend money directly to a bank account. The process reached countdown stage.
On count “one”, I asked:
– “Can you guys, – make it, little bit, bigger?”
Excitement on other side reached level of a NASA, discovered fresh life on Mars.
Sum of lending money reached level of entry fee in Google Lunar XPRIZE competition on night of 31th, December 2010, and to-be-paid-after-6-month amount was increased twice. Countdown restarted from a number “10”. On count “one” I challenged:
– “Please, Sir. Can I have some more?”.
Voice from musical repeated:
- “More!?”
Second abort elevated me to a next management level (where do Credit Cards keep managers at 20:00 Friday? On Hawaii?). And first time from the beginning of acquaintance, voice asked with hesitation:
– “How much?”
Now, it was my turn:
- “Moon…Space…Rover…That is music! From 3D printer! Can you hear it on the phone? And, If! To! Place! 3D printer on The Moon!…. 5 min… and rockets, and Space, and X, and R, and 7, V-2, Dnepr-18, and 32….probably 5 – but better be 10, ideal case 20 – only in ideal case… each drop of brandy doubled my money requirements …Canada ... Space…Moon…Hockey…15 min…. 45 minutes of flawless flight.
Nerves of Hawaiian-located manager were touched. He began to convince me that even with 50 grand I can reach my goal and improve my home. He apologized that financial institution have no idea what rockets are, and how to sell SS-18 in case of bankruptcy, but perfectly know how to organize, and what to do with real estate (I asked “What do you mean? –Organize, Real, estate, crush?” – he replied “Yes – we do!”).
We was on top, on Qomolangma, we played Prince of Denmark in The Globus, simultaneously– “To get or not to get”, that question – “this amount”. As Romeo, at counter desk in Shoppers Drug Mart, I declared -“There is thy goal!”, and as Tibald he rushed to stick a sword with hidden fees into the belly of Mercutio. After 1 hour he was exhausted.
Truly speaking it was not fair fight – I have had supply of brandy, and he was sitting in office.
Last his words was: “Would(?). You(!) Like(?). To take the advantage, of our generous offer, and TAKE the money?”
On sentence: “Can we make it bigger, up to 20 millions?!” he drop the phone.
Sorry, my man! You were incredible!

AUGUST 07, 2013 04:30 PM Financial adviser & Alex Dobrianski

TD Bank, Saturday, small business bank’s financial adviser(FA) talking with Alex Dobrianski (A).
A: Cosmos….Space ….Rover… Moon… – pause, quick seep of coffee.
FA: And, do you believe in aliens?
A: I do believe in home equity line of credit.
FA: A!!! I got it. Not a problem, not a problem, at all.... But do you think, is it possible, small chance,that, aliens visits our world?

JULY 31, 2013 02:03 PM - 2-from-3 majority logic.

Dnepr back in service: , price did not changes from 31$mln listed on 18 Apr 2012 (price mentioned only on Russian version of a page: ) . “Rokot” rocket launches is still suspended after 15 January 2013.
Return to service because – “ agreed with changes on percentage of financial contribution, old percentage was not profitable” - In other words - offset's contractors show each other how much money they want to make.
Rocket is conversion model of “Satan SS-18”, 3.7t on a orbit. F=geptil, O= amil (N2O4) == very toxic.
Vibration profile for Cubesats testing mentioned “Dnepr” rocket's profile.
Interesting from my prospective - on that rocket first time was a failure of triple control system. All 3 system was perfectly working during flight, but delays in different arrival time of the data confused 2-from-3 majority voting logic. Solution – expensive tripling, or total clock's synchronization (which has conflict with tripling of a system).
In article mentioned prices - “Zenit” 80$-90$, and price of “Proton” after series of failure dropped to same as “Zenit” level (previously was 5$+10$ more than “Zenit”).
See also:

JULY 17, 2013 12:57 PM     Video update, July 16, 2013.

grounds station, communication protocol, flash memory, molds, carbon fiber.

JULY 15, 2013 06:07 PM     Interesting article about 3D printing

JUNE 28, 2013 11:27 AM     Space money by Pay Pal?

JUNE 27, 2013 11:11 PM     Modem, Lunaro, RF noise pattern detection.

2.4 communication protocol implementation to be continued. If Implementation "as a Modem" is not good - to bad for implementation - source code was to be cut. Lunaro sterling coins database and web interface mock-up. Small program to detect noise patterns in RF. That's it for a past 1.5 week.

Модем не подходит - модем должен быть перепрограммирован. Лунаро монета - мок-ап базы даннах и веб интерфейса. Выделение паттерна шума из радио сигнала.

JUNE 18, 2013 12:45 PM     Data protocol extension. GPS implementation.

Packets transferred between microprocessors can be noisy, data can be lost. To recover from errors in header of the packet was added double unit address. Last byte in a packet can be skipped. Re transmit of the data to different micro-unit implemented on interrupt level.

Communication module do not work "like-modem" anymore. For upload data over radio-link in a packet was introduced CMD*. After CMD* rest of the packet transfer ether back to serial com (if no connection) or to the other communication module. CMD= extended to re transmit data to a another micro-unit.

GPS has a bad reception in concrete building. That creates problems in debugging GPS data processing inside main controller, - needs to take laptop and go outside.

Another SMD device able to retrieve raw GPS/GLOSNAT data was discovered - SE4110L. Without limitations on traveling speed and altitude. Device outputs data after ADC conversion. All data has to be processed in micro controller. Disadvantage - industrial temperature range.

Another alternative to GPS/GLOSSNAT was investigated but it is premature to say anything now - needs to process captured digitized data.

Serg was asked to embed some jokes to his presentation.

Внесены изменения в протокол обмена данными. Для восстановления от потерь хвостов пакетов в заголовок разрешен дублированный адрес. Закрывающий байт пакета может быть пропущен. Коммуникационные модули перестали быть модемами, для космической коммуникации это не практично. Внесена команда * - загрузки данных на подсоединенное устройство. Расширена (восстановлена из предыдущего небытия) команда = для ретрансляции пакетов.

GPS задрал - очень плохой прием в железобетонном здании. Как дурак берешь лаптоп и прешся в скверик, и вместо работы рассказываешь лекцию на тему - а что такое космос.

Появилась микросхема с полными причандалами GPS/GLOSNATA - SE4110L, до АЦП включительно, коштуе 3 бакса, хреноватый температурный режим -40+85. Достоинство - всю математику нужно считать самому и можно не платить за сертификацинную GPS (цена больше 10 штук, плюс нужно доказывать, что не был и в верблюдах не состоял) с отключенной защитой от скоростей больше 500 метров в секунду.

Другая альтернатива GPS обдумывалась, компонеты заказаны, и даже идея была опробована, - но пока все это несерьезные спекуляции - нужно обработать данные.

JUNE 11, 2013 01:45 PM     Clock synchronization between modules.

For proper functionality of Mission Control web site, Ground Station’s software, Ground Station’s microcontrollers, communication modules on ground station and on CubeSat, needs to synchronize clocks and timers on all devices. That process can be done in hardware. Software implementation of the process, has it is own challenges, but can bring advantages like ability to get orbit parameters.

Assembled part of ground station. Gear & wheels.

JUNE 04, 2013 10:58 PM     My lost audience.

Old lady, doctor, not much relatives left in my old city, no kids, never had husband, cranky, got a cancer after getting in her professional life more radiation from medical equipment than acceptable today norms. Plus she do not want to go to a nursing house, got best prediction to live weeks, may be months, do not want to accept money's help, and, as ex-doctor understand her medical condition better than anybody else.

What to do if I am half a globe from her? I started to call her over phone and give her update about competition, all exciting for me and absolutely boring to everybody else information, - how to calculate partial derivatives of a gravitation potential of the earth, how to calibrate gyroscope using quaternions , how to design error correction radio protocol. To my surprise she did understood what I was talking, on next phone call she replied – “yep – quaternion is like complex numbers but 4 dimensional – you told me that”. After that come another surprise, doctors usually hard to accept the treatment and medicine for themselves, and placebo is extremely hard to find, looks like their profession gives them enough information about methods and procedures of the modern medicine. To that my second surprise, stories spoken over the phone become sort of placebo, her voice became better and stronger after talk. I phoned her like I posted blogs on GLXPRIZE website, sometime each day, sometime once per week, sometime per month, but only with good news. She was learning ideas how to do this or that in the space, in the competition, in business, and that helped her, she stopped to complain, her first question become – “when will be a launch of your rocket”.

I lost my most hungry-to-learning audience yesterday.

JUNE 04, 2013 10:58 PM     3D printed parts of ground station/rover, Main PCB, etc.

In software development exist rule - if source code working from the beginning - that mean only one -- something wrong with a source code. Such excitement discovery was made last week by Alex -- he was wondering why main computer board starts to function right away, but 3.3 voltage regulator during last month was overheated like boiling water -- well it was simple 6 SMD components was soldered upside-down. Current was 180 milliamps, instead of 18. Fix was quick -- it takes 10 minutes to rework PCB, but positive part is components was chosen properly - all 6 SMDs was working perfectly after 1 month stress.

Integration continue on GPS and Camera. HD Camera waiting it turn together with Orbitcomm backup communication modem. Integration at the rest of the week was not a full scale SNAFU, which was bothered Alex little bit. And finally -- all 3D printed parts for a rover and ground station showed up last Friday. Some imperfections was fixed - like this on a HD camera sealed box, or on camera box -- probably the thickness of a wall (target == made from carbon fiber) will be OK, but for rover testing (that part additionally to a camera box functionality will be used as a leg for a movement) plastic is not strong enough. For reduced size ground station tubes was made from aluminum, and assembly was in a progress

MAY 26, 2013 10:42 PM     3 configurations, Mission Ctrl + Ground station integration

Last 2 weeks - Rover - was done 3 configurations.

a) Rover as moon rover - it is a "virtual rover". Exists in 3D model formats. Majority parts has to be made from carbon fiber. To make each (carbon fiber) part need to design molds, and to print molds from PVA (like this) on a 3D printer (like that). Today we know that on that printer, to make all molds, and to make all carbon fiber frames (like this), with "space capable to fly" epoxy (like this) it is require total 45 days. That is why we named that moon rover as a "virtual one". Before arrangements of the flight to the moon, it is not practical to spend time and efforts to build such device. Only demonstration can be a purpose for rush, to build a "virtual rover".

b) Rover as a ground station for a test flight. That is exactly same rover but designed to operate on the earth surface. In this case it is not require use of carbon fiber. Same parts can be made from less strong plastic.

c) Compact version of a rover. It is not a rover truly speaking -- it looks like regular ground station, but parts for such configuration is exactly same as in configuration (b). That compact version also is for a debugging software purposes. Configuration (b) and (c) has totally different mechanical properties, but software which will control 4 stepper motors in first configuration and 2 steppers motors in second configuration, must be the same, software should be self adaptable for such different mechanical configuration, to perform task for orientation the antenna to a moving target -- flying cubesat.

Plus convenience to use 3D printing on factory allows, to separate process of design and manufacturing, make ground station on 2.4Ghz for a cubesat repeatable, and, who knows!, can allow to support main project by taking orders to build 2.5 GHz ground stations. Parts can be ordered on next week via shapeways factory.

Antenna will be regular helix (like this one), or reduced size helix (like that one). Reduced size helix has major advantages -- 3D print is twice less expensive than regular helix; different winding of a conductor allows to reduce interference of two transmitters working on the same frequency at the same time, which is important in a case of constellation of cubesats flying together.

Ground station electronics and software. The same main processor board for ground station (like this) is reused from a cubesat main processor board. Last week was done integration of a board with mission control, today mission control can operate flash memory and main computer commands. Some improvements was done on simulation of a flight, and session data visualization.

ON MAY 13, 2013 10:19 PM     Ground Station, rover ver 6, clearance, solar power harvesting surface.

Last week was spent in redesign of a rover and ground station. It was done by three main reasons –

a) ground station needs to be build and 3D models for 3D printer has to be finalized.

b) clearance of a rover needs to be increased.

c) needs to increase solar power harvesting surface.

In old design on frame was mounts for flexible solar panels (cells).

each cell has size 25.4 x 63.5 mm = 16 square centimeters.

length (long side )of the frame was 600mm, that gives a place for 23 panels with total surface of 0.037m^2

two frames allows to use 4 times more - total 92 cells, or total .14 m^2

with efficiency of 0.09(9%) and power of a sun per square meter = 1000Wt surface can give 13.35 watt total.

Top side of a rover can harvest some energy, but at the same time bottom did not, it is in shadow – outcome power probably is half == 6 watts.

Solar panels mounted on frame with 45 degree angle.

Problem (b) frame is not flexible, in can stuck on terrain - as a result needs to increase clearance.

Second problem (c) - needs to increase harvesting power surface. (6 watt capable source with 40% efficiency of a 10 watt transmitter, means that transfer of data can be done only in 1 minutes with another 3 minutes 20 seconds waits to harvest the energy.

Flexible solar panel side is 63.5 mm. Assuming it is hypotenuse - that geometrically gives in prime triangle with 45 degree angle, side sizes 45+45mm – which is bigger that original 63mm.

Sizes of each cell will be smaller (like 25.4 mm x 44.9 mm) but on same frame now it is 46 cells with 0.052 m^2.

On 2 frames can be placed 4 groups of 46 cells, calculating same efficiency and same Sun’s power, that surface allows to harvest total 18.8 watt.

Same top-bottom and max outcome power is 9 watt. That is better, than previous design, and it mean == 1 minutes to transmit + 2 minutes to harvest.

Placing additional 2 stand (length 0.5m) which can hold 19x4 = 76 small size panels outcome additional 0.17m^2 with total power 15wt (and half of tit is 7wt). Gives the grand total is 34wt from all surfaces, and halfing gives max s 17 watt power. Which is not bad – on top of each minute to transmit it will require 35 seconds to harvest.

Now the question where to place that two stands. Plus needs to balance weight- i.e - 350grams for each 4 stepper motor, but gear motors can be reduced to have less torque. That can save around 50-100 grams on a motors in favor for stands. Reducing clearance makes smaller dimensions and also saves weight.

Total amount solar cell (sizes 45x25mm) to accommodate on rover today is 168. With weight limit of 400 grams for all system it is 2.3 grams per flexible cell including weights of holders and mounts. Plus needs to account that after 3 week flight cells will lost 1/2 of it power capability. Realistically it will be 8 watt of power at best.

That is a theory – up today Ground station's 3D models probably ready to be ordered, but rover's energy harvesting mounts not finalized yet.

ON MAY 10, 2013 03:23 PM Interesting video about Mars program.

Korolev initial intention (same as Von Brown) was a planet Mars, not the Moon. Facts about researches done in that program in 1960-1970 – artificial gravity and anabiosis.

in 1960 Valery Kubasov (that time young engineer from ballistic group, after- cosmonaut on Souze) started to work on trajectory calculation on Mars mission, craft's components, weight of a TMK.

Planning mission's window was on 1972-1974 (closest distance for earth-mars), that date was matching with a time when NK-33 engines (exactly same used in last flight of Antares) was ready to be tested before flight. For lunar flight, NK-33 engines was not capable to be ignited twice, as a result tests of NK-33 was done by “random pick” – two engines from four (built on same factory and from same materials) was fire-tested – on any problems in tests all four engines was rejected, but if tests of two engines passed successfully than two never fired engines was accepted (it was common and strange test's technic – but was practiced in military for hundreds years). Korolev planned to had “testable” engines at the beginning of 70th.

It was required 7 launches of N-1 rockets to assemble 75*8= 600 ton space craft.

For artificial gravity experiments was planned one Voskhod flight, canceled after death of Korolev.

To test artificial gravitation on earth (15:37 from the beginning of the movie ) was build apparatus and tests was conducted – results – weightless is better than artificial gravity – after just two hours in such condition testers (including the designer of an apparatus) become totally seasick, was able to consume as a food only a chicken soup.

To survive radiation (solar sudden bursts) (see 21:38) was tested hypobioses” (anabiosis). Experiments were conducted in 1960-1966 years and were inspired by facts that mammals in natural suspended animation can withstand high dose of radiation than in “normal” state.

Idea of temperature induced “anabiosis” was abandoned personally by Korolev, after he check what equipment needed for such medical operation.

Chemically induced hypobioses was tested successfully on mice and dogs, trick was to reduce process of oxygenation on cell's level. Prolongation was 1 day, and suspended animation allowed dog to survive 70G in 5 minute, 800Rx dose of lethal radiation on mice, 70% reduction of oxygen use. That can allow to reduce amount of a lead protection on a space craft 2-3 times, make smaller emergency return vehicle, reduce of require oxygen in emergency situation by 70%. Ideal was to sleep part time of a flight to Mars. Side effect was intoxication after couple hours after returning to normal state from hypobioses. That did not stopped Korolev – he insisted that winning couple hours in emergency situation can save the lives in space. In 1966 was found the reason for intoxication – leftover in digestion system was not in a “sleeping” state. After slowing process (instead of minutes) the prolongation time was reached 5 days. Tests was closed after 1966, and was never conducted on humans.

In a movie –

Hypobiosis - Nikolay Timofeev originally started his work in space research on ejection sit of Vostok space ship.

Artificial gravity – Leonid Kitaev-Smik

Ballistic calculations - Valery Kubasov (also participated in Apollo-Soyuz mission).


P.S. Well, well, well Victor – you are definitely a pragmatic man. It is nice to collect your opinion. According Victor, fast procedure to induce, chemical nature of hypobioses , after intoxication related to digestion system, reduction of oxygen use more than half, all point out to the well known (by thousand years) medical substance. Only problem – easy addiction.

ON MAY 06, 2013 11:41 AM One checkbox implementation in web interface

One checkbox implementation in mission control web interface - real-time data for orientation vectors for ground station antenna. == Same xml file used for visualization of a CubeSat trajectory, also used to feed antenna control. .

TRA application now can accept data in XML format from a remote, dynamically created "initial" position, and post results of trajectory calculations back to the same or even different server. That future allows to calculate trajectory and engines firing time in parallel via distributed calculations network. Probably the same mechanism can be used in screen saver app.

details on

ON MAY 03, 2013 04:57 PM Three news – for today

1 - Well, Serg, Canada printing “space” money now!

“In a world first, Canada’s Chris Hadfield unveiled a new money note — while in space.”… …

And Chris already brought to the International Space Station hockey puck.

2 - Estonia launched first EstCube on first ESA VEGA mini satellite launcher.

Congratulations Tartu!

3 - Serg you video did not make it.


that mesaage was blocked by Google plus when I post it yesterday

ON APRIL 28, 2013 01:27 AM  Communication, sat's trajectory simulation.

Communication, packages of commands, re-design from standard modem communication implementation, flush memory buffer to speed up data transfer, triple flush memory with majority voting (protection from radiation damage). Visualization of calculated trajectory in simulator to generate commands for (a) ground station and (b) craft/cubesat. GPS satellites traject's simulation for proper calculation of a craft/ground station positions.

Also suggested to watch perfect video about design and manufacturing of a Apollo computer (MIT). My favorite part are buttons on the front panel. Video finally made available on youtube last year. Enjoy:

ON APRIL 24, 2013 01:56 PM Simulation for ground station.
Last travisual.xml file includes trajectory of the moon in last 60 minutes (it shows polyline how moon rotates around earth) and also coordinates (trajectories) of (up to 10) satellites - on a server ( tra.exe running now in loop and output updated travisual.xml - (click couple times on the it is constantly updated - in processing of the file needs to handle a non-finished-write-to-the-file cases).

last changes was s

- to manipulate (re-size/rotates/move) the earth-moon system

- to pickup latest travisual.xml with last positions.

Today i need to update real time position of the satellites (now it require to reload applets) and somehow to show azimuth + longitude for satellite when it will fly over ground station.

I also need (It is my main goal - after visualization to continue with ground station software) to have a "view" button on a surface of the sphere (earth) at ground station location, for that I need to show night sky with stars, or at least some longitude latitude mesh. I have no idea how to do this.

V., can you check how applet will work for you ( - texture of a earth and the moon downloaded separately - I need to know the delay - when I tests behind a router it (the router) slows down download of the files and I do not get proper value of a download time - and from my another desktop java does not work - no clue how to make java working back on that computer.

I talked yesterday with Boris - he told that in his last project (some automation) he tried all SVG/GL, Java applets and Silverlight

Best was Silverlight - Microsoft was fastest to run, fast to get real time data and faster in development (C#).

- SVG/GL was slow by any compare, except rapid prototyping.

- java was ok, but tools to developed was really archaic, problem was with real-time.

And I tied yesterday Silverlight - to switch now it will push be back for at least one week to learn how to do lights and etc.

ON APRIL 20, 2013 11:46 PM Overview of mission control

Last week's changes

on -

ON APRIL 18, 2013 04:36 PM Visualization, XML, trajectory, Lunaro, MySQL.

Thanks Vera!

This is sample ugly animation of two years ago. o.

The Earth In the central point, the moon is the ellipse.

And the trajectory of the flight path missed the lunar surface in the direct flight. This occurred because of insufficient third (main) impulse, and the Prob did not reach the 11/10 distance the Moon's orbit. Rules are - miss direct flight to the celestial body == and satellite will fly in space forever.

Animation made from sequences of a jpeg files produced in tra.exe run. TRA.EXE runs independently (may be on different computer(s) ) and produce jpeg in a projection of a two axes –XY/XZ/YZ, but it is also can output xml file with current positions of sun-earth-moon and polylines of a trajectories (sun-moon-earth-satellites), all what I need is visualization. Java is ok – I do not think it will be strong requirements to install java+java3D on computers running ground stations. From page click on link "In development Craft's /CubeSat's Mission Control. Follow link below ", or directly - on click on "Simulation".

For sure if it is possible to do visualization without java but with scalable vector graphics – in that case I can dump java applets and use Jscript. Attached .xml files with samples of coordinates. Also need to use textures (maps of earth/moon) and lights to have a realistic of day/night line – otherwise without lights it is complicated to modify textures on a fly. I like link but I do not think it will be millions of the users interested in visualization of a GPS satellite position and trajectory calculations/visualization. For a nice representation of a flight path l would prefer to make a screen's saver with dynamic animation (length 1 min max) and with changing view angle on each run. In that case screen's saver can become a useful tool – running on hundreds/thousands computers and picking up from server values for possible trajectory (like - one computer tries one ranges of impulses, another computer tries another set – you know - distributed calculations). With java I can easily do this – switch from the applet to the application, but what about Jscript and SWG?

Now about MySQL and Lunaro – Today I know how to do Lunaro's transactions without recording personal information – only place where personal information will be present is the session (session's variables) on the server (server is protected by HTTPS) and E-mail delivery system. I did not finalized cases of fractional payments (like 0.0015 Lunaro), and postponed delivery of coin(s) after original payment (again question is about storage/location of personal information).

If to look at BitCoins - it is a nice idea, but it is not what I have in mind. Truly speaking all mathematicians must be jealous – BitCoin is monetization of prime numbers. Next stop will be, let say, a using irrational numbers as silver, and complex numbers as gold (“ How much for a nice looking, last million digits of 3.1415..? Can I use 3.1415..+j2.7182818284… as a guaranty for home renovation loan?”). BitTorent (as distributed storage and processing) idea is not quite fit to a BitCoin/ banking system – in any transaction needs to have “trusted witness” – more servers runs, more chance for cheating. Distributed system should be used to recovery from a loss (different reasons for loss – technical, legal, etc) of the trusted servers. If MySQL can work as a clusters with all-masters mode, and with replication process done automatically, that that is exactly what it is needed.

Another problem (to be accounted) is stated on their website - BitCoins are for transaction, not for capitalization. Two nuggets of gold extracted from earth are not equivalent of two proved prime numbers (sorry four to be exact), even was used the same amount of electricity to extract/to get. If somebody uses some prime numbers, proved by a computers' calculation, and anybody can find the same prime number just by pure luck, than for sure system works when prime numbers has to be disposed regularly. If to talk about money, the capitalization needs to be solved, otherwise the scam or crush pre-programmed to the system. I think physical object needs to be used (by the way Victor’s suggestion about rare earth elements are not crazy to speak), capitalization and transaction is like potential and inertial energy in dynamic system - required for stabilization.

ON APRIL 12, 2013 06:12 PM Interesting post: Mars-3 found.

Lost in 1971 Mars-3 found on Mars. By analyzing pictures from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

On Mars-3 lander was a rover “Prop-M” designed by Kemurdzhian’s team, similar design used Selenokhod. Post interesting, in a Russian, with Google translate possibility on the page.

ON APRIL 11, 2013 11:02 AM Mikhail Kochetkov in Vancouver.

In the beginning was the word:

. . само собою как-то приключилось, ь,

Я их обидеть не хотел,

Я просто делелал что хотел,

Я просто делеал что хотел - и получилось.

ON APRIL 03, 2013 05:39 AM Buenos días, Santiago

From Team PlanB

Team Puli

ON MARCH 27, 2013 06:06 PM Era of Apollo electronics.

Nice technical article- modern subsidize for old sensors , ADC, and etc. for used in Apollo program -

ON MARCH 26, 2013 04:18 PM Radiation according horoscope.

Thanks Boris - crystal diffraction of heavy particles can make some "pockets" with low probability of radiation. And also thanks for another idea - stamped, laminated surface of gold leaf in the form of reflective concave mirror can achieve the same. In that case radiation protection for electronics can be done inexpensively - Holes under microchips (anyway done for soldering ground plates) needs to be filled by indium-lead alloy around 2/3 thickness of PCB. The surface tension of the molten alloy forms a concave surface. All that remains - wash off the solder paste in alcohol and apply gold leaf to the surface. According Alan Turing in his Systems of Logic based on Ordinals - our intuition needs to be proved before it becomes ingenuity. Of course we are not MIT to check all this in the lab - but the idea is beautiful.

1993, Moscow, friend's house, "space" talks in a kitchen - -

- R-7 rocket's engine was... mainframe computers are… and was invented....gyrocompass …..

Little, 6 years old girl, patiently listening to a scientific talk, then suddenly asked:

- Uncle Alex, in what year you were born?

- ?! 1959.

- Uncle Alex! You are the pig! According east’s gyroscope!

Nice article can be implemented on Xbox (in Russian. Not sure about appropriate/correct translation to other languages)

ON MARCH 22, 2013 02:30 PM Inexperienced programmer

Inexperienced programmer's voice – 3.1415926535897932384626433832795! Google+ pages's egocentrism kills me completely – For what, on the Earth, the Yo-Ma-Yo I do need all those gadgets, if I cannot ask my son on a "his+” page the answer to a question: “How to write, right now, in his MySQL language, lines/code to extract the data?" And for what reason do I needs “friendly suggestions” to meet unknown to me people, who cut-and-paste rubbish (sorry cool information) on their pages, without bothering to find and to point the original source.Well, it is the Hatter’s best -

"... I was obliged to kill the Time…" …"

At the beginning of space age the computer was invented to reach moon and to save dimension 4. “…Not a tick ever since.” – “Sugar = question mark = quote closed = asked the March Hare= dot = full stop

------------------------------------------------------for my friend Shura the translation:

Глас неученого программиста - Ъ + 3.1415926535897932384626433832795!

Эгоцентризм страниц гугла плас меня добивает - на-е-ма-е мне все эти прибамбасы если я не могу спросить своего сына, на его странице(!), как прописать ЕСКУЕЛЬ команду, которая мне нужна сейчас! И на кой ляд мне все эти САГГЭСШЕНС по поводу и без повода незнакомых мне людей, которые перепечатывают белиберду на свои станицы, не трудясь указать оригинальный источник информации. Ничего не скажешь == гениальное изобретение в стиле Болванщика из Алисиной чудесной страны - "А сейчас мы убъем ваше время. Махмуд! Поджигай."

P.S. Question to a Team PlanB

- Вопрос - А почему я ничего не знаю про Вашу команду и Ваш полет на луну?

Ответ - Бог бережет тебя, глупое создание!

ON MARCH 21, 2013 01:20 PM First Lunaro Sterling transactions.

On March 18 2013, Team PlanB's partners (in team there are no, and will not be employees, or volunteers - only partners) get first cash in Lunaro Sterling money. Shura, Nadia, Yuri, Victor, Boris, Kostia, Gregory, Serg, Andrey, Nadezda, thanks you for your extraordinary contributions. The Moon is still on the same place as it was last 4 billions years - on the sky. But your efforts and ideas made the sky closer.

ON MARCH 19, 2013 02:15 PM Ground Station communication.
Part of the software is It is interface hub talking via communication port to a ground station’s 2.4Ghz communication system and controls. From other side it communicates with a SatCtrl website to provide session’s data to be stored and processed. Via ground station's 2.4ghz system GrStn communicates to a satellite controls, sensors, and data storage. Download of a latest executable module on a page “About” of a SatCtrl.

Difference in packet type – for Cubesat/craft uplink type=’1’; for cubesat/craft downlink type=’2’ for cubesat/craft broken packages type= ‘3’ , for ground station uplink control type ‘4’, for ground station downlink type = ‘5’. Posting to SatCtrl- done, parsing response from satCtrl –TBD, POST from satCtrl –TBD, comm reading/ writing threads -TBD.

MARCH 15, 2013 12:51 PM "Communication session" DB.

Thanks, Serg, MySQL is not really my, but yours. To my pleasure language is different from another SQL. StorProcs are different, has a problems with integration to VS2010 and etc. All are hard to learn in one day. Pros- for MYSQL - according Victor - available MS product has limitation - on size - for big DB needs to pay in 3 zeroes, another plus for MySQL- according Boris MySQL perfectly can holds gigabytes, especially on SSD. Cons- According to Victor - time to be spend will the same as pay for commercial product in same 3 zeros.

All what needs from you are - to store from a “ground- station- control- computer” via web interface (i.e. page Post.aspx) record into a table in "Communication session" database with fields (a) session identifier (b) type of record ("uplink"/"downlink"/"downlink-was-with-error) (c) packet number (d) station identifier/backup channel (e) variable data size and two times (f) time of WebControl (g) time of send/receive via ground stations. Simple and non fancy. Also need to have one BD per one table.

I'll take care of”listening" software on a ground station computer. It is includes control for a ground station antenna / rover, and transmitter/receiver.

For you- via web interface (you can see "mockup" page GroundStation.aspx) will be set addresses and another parameters for station control computer. Then on a page

CraftCubeSat.aspx will be formed commands to be sent to a craft/Cubesats. Click on "send" button initiates transfer of uplink data to IP connected GrStn computer (that will be my headache to post/get data from one web server to GrStn software). GrStn software accepts command and send it to uplink (or to Azimuth / altitude controls, GrStn diagnostics) and posts back to website one records with a new session number, "uplink" / "GrStn_control" / "diag" type, GrStn number, "real" send time, and with packet's number is 0. As a result in DB will be exactly what send to uplink was. Then response (downlink) received on a 2.4Ghz communication will be posted as a second record into DB. Difference is a received time, packet number, and type. One "uplink" can creates many "downlinks". If packed can not be restored by algorithms inside communication system's microprocessor, then record will be with type of "downlink-broken-record". New uplink reset packet number to 0 and assign new session number. Another page to view (list) is a SessionData.aspx on it will be possible to visually check data.

That approach makes initial data to be stored as its. Any derivatives like retriving video or pictures or telemetry can be done separatly from a process of communication and control. Broken packages (impossible to restore in real time) can be restored later (using hash algorithm's matching). In that case additional record (of a restored packet) will be inserted additionally to a original broken packet. All addons can be done separatly, independently, and from different distributed processing computers.

I need for tonight: (a) Post.aspx page (needs to strip site.master's copy, long responce from IIS is not nessesary) (b)another page (for testing and manual entry) SesionPost.aspx (c) C# code for MyrSQL data insertion (d) visualization DB page Sessiondata.aspx (e) StorProc to get new Session number (table do not have "uniqe key" field or whatever terminology used in YourSQL).

SatCtrl web server available from link on a page If it is not working then ether – I am debugging, or give me a call I’ll reset server.


thnks Serg. Well done. Just to small remind - I need StoreProc. Friday - Are you coming to Korean БАНЯ? I have beer. I have to pick up next portion of just printed lunar money and then we can go.

ON MARCH 14, 2013 05:13 PM Aluminum, again.

With full interaction 27g Al (1 mol) with H2O to form the amorphous Al(OH)3 and H2 by reaction produces 418 kJ of heat. According to calculations by the stoichiometric equation of the chemical reaction for the complete oxidation of 27g (1 mol) of aluminum requires 54g (3 mol) of H2O, with proportion mass of water to the mass of aluminum in 2 times: H2O: Al = 54:27 = 2 : 1: reaction:

2Al+6H2O3 = 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2 H2


2Al + 3H2O = Al2O3 + 3H2

Released at the same time the amount of heat, in the absence of cooling, it is enough to heat the reaction product to a temperature of 2300°C. (based on in

On for comparison - 1kg of aluminum can give 0.11kr of hydrogen with volume 1.24m3 and it is equivalent of a (to compare with gasoline 46mJ/kg) 0.296kg of gasoline. All this articles was about methods how to produce hydrogen using fine aluminum and the water.

Interesting table on page 103 of Introducing more water makes process more controllable.

Victor can you check (just curious!). If, instead of H2O, it is mixture of 50%H2O and 50%H2O2 (or may be in another proportion), than: 2H2O2 = 2H2O + O2, and 2Al + 3H2O = Al2O3 + 3H2, and combustion of hydrogen and oxygen also adds released energy. Under normal temperature all components are stable (well, some sort of for H2O2), but if cylinder shaped piece of aluminum will be ignited and mixture will be delivered to a place of burning via cooling channels(inside aluminum cylinder). Then process of burning can be controllable (ignore Ignition problem for now). Where I am wrong?

ON MARCH 12, 2013 11:37 AM Software.

Finally software to be taking care – to get landing page of Craft/Cubesat Mission Control click on link “Craft's /CubeSat's Mission Control. Follow link below” from the page

Source code for mission control RL

Source code for main processor managing GPS, Camera, HD Camera, backup communication is

Source code for 2.4Ghz communication on

That code (I hope) will changed a lot in next 2-3 weeks.

All sources code and 3D designs are on

ON MARCH 11, 2013 11:37 AM Canadian Space Commerce Association

On March 7th, 2013 in Toronto took place annual Canadian Space Commerce Association. More details and presentations on: . and on Lot of people – lot of information about space commerce

ON MARCH 05, 2013 09:11 PM Main PCB board with 3 CPU on it (including GPS).

Soldering kainda a problem - for indium alloy (In60Pb40)it is very time consuming, with indium(In60Pb40) soldering paste is less available and expensive, with indium (In100) paste is low strength (SMD components can not withstand good vibration), plus is 155C max, plus it is less sticky.

For ground station and CS prototype used Sn60Pn40. For relatively simple board process takes 2 hours for components list, 1 hour for manual paste distribution, 1 hour for placing SMD, 7 min in oven. For InPb soldering it will take around 2+6 hours. s.
And it will be less video from now on – next CubeSat flight software.

ON MARCH 04, 2013 10:12 PM 2.4Ghz LNA, test's failures, and finally == worked.

A lot of failures and attempts to make “2.4Ghz LNA” working, and at clear sky over Vancouver it finally done. Tests includes standard BlueTooth transmitter/receiver 1mWt (0 dBm) and second device (LNA with cascade 3x12 =36 dB, transmitter 6dBm 4mWt). “Standard 0dBm” transmitting signal needs to be picked up from 10km. At the same time “standard – receive” will be picked up from 4 km. Two persons with cell-phones call each other and confirm communication session by looking on a blinking LED. LED blinks only when proper packet was received and processed (including restoration of noisy packets from different BT and WiFi transmitters in urban environment). Noise also has to be suppressed from cell-pones stationary transmitters (on top of SFU hill and QE park at Vancouver).

Design from the beginning was successful but was not able to be proved by range tests, each time max range was 1km. Finally problem was resolved when Gregory an Boris pointed that “coaxial wire” is probably is not a “real coaxial. Impedance of wire was measured, adjustments was done, and at rainy day poaring rain brought conformation that everything is working, then on march day at clear sky over Vancouver comes conformation of range tests, 2.5km-OK;;

Even to do test on 10km was not necessary. Signal received by standard BT from 6dBm was picked up on 4km, and according “rainy test” that mean antennas-amplifiers system must to pickup signal over 20km which is more than it was expected.

MARCH 01, 2013 10:45 PM Old technical recording. R1 (V2/A4) replica. Events behind the film.

In part 4 of 1948 the documentary explained all failure rocket/engines/systems and then briefly mentioned successful launches. All test failure analyzed, problems and fixes recorded on film and explained in details.

Test 1. Rocket #4. Failure explained by Boris Chertok:- “I was responsible for the first crash,” declared Chernov. “At the launch site, Korolev saw me, called me over to the launch pad, and explained, ‘This missile is Soviet, but the launch pad is still German. Do you see the onboard skid contact? It starts the timer at the moment of launch. Its rod rests in a corresponding niche on the launch pad. The pad needs to be fixed so that everything will be ready by morning.’” Chernov was devising and designing all evening. He woke up the metalworkers in the middle of the night and by morning in the workshop on the special train they had produced his version of the skid contact stop, or more correctly speaking, the liftoff contact. According to Chernov’s version of the story, his student design did not withstand the powerful pop, and the contact broke after the “ignition” command rather than after the missile lifted off from the launch pad. The horizon gyro timer started ahead of time; a pitch command was sent to the control surfaces, tilting the missile immediately while it was still on the pad. As the missile was leaving the pad, the plume was pointed, not vertically, but at an angle, and it hurled the pad off into the steppe."

Test 2. Rocket #3. Failure - "The second missile proved to be even more obstinate. To begin with, the ground crews eliminated all the defects in the ground-based cable network. Next, during two launch attempts the engine did not start, despite the fact that the system did not reset. After long experiments on a missile standing on the pad, they discovered that the main oxygen valve had frozen. Eventually they removed the oxygen valve from one of the missiles and checked its ability to freeze. They determined that the cause of the failure was the stiffening of the abundant amount of oil in its bellows assembly. The missile tests were discontinued. The main oxygen valves were removed from all the missiles and sent to the factory in Khimki for degreasing. This was a powerful blow to engine designer"

After third test failure - "The high-ranking leaders had been fully convinced that we had not only studied and reproduced German technology, but had substantially increased the missiles’ reliability. And now suddenly they discovered that the missiles, for various reasons, simply refused to fly."

Event behind film - "The next missile launch scheduled for 1 November was postponed due to severe fog. During the night, the sentry guarding the launch site showed exceptional vigilance and for some unknown reason shouted, “Stop! Who goes there?” No response came out of the fog and he fired a warning shot. The guard raised by the alarm found nothing suspicious in the surrounding area. Arriving at the site the next morning, the launch team immediately smelled the strong scent of alcohol. An inspection showed that the shot the night before had not been fired into the air, but rather into the filled alcohol tank. The missile’s entire tail section was drenched with alcohol from the bullet hole. They removed the missile and shipped it to the factory in Podlipki for restoration and sent the sentry to the brig. Voznyuk was advised of the guards’ utterly unsatisfactory training."

Operator turned launch's key actually launched first satellite and first man into the space. All military personal recorded in film rest of their life was involved in space launches.

Official conclusion: “The first series of R-1 domestic missiles in terms of their flight characteristics, as demonstrated by the flight tests, were not inferior to the captured A4 missiles. Fundamental issues during the reproduction of R-1 missiles from domestic materials were correctly resolved … The flight characteristics of the first series of R-1 missiles conform to the characteristics specified by the tactical and technical requirements, with the exception of range scatter.”

Combat general statement - "What are you doing? You pour over four metric tons of alcohol into a missile. And if you were to give that alcohol to my division, they could take any city easily. And your missile wouldn’t even hit that city! Who needs it?"

All military likes alcohol! What else to say. Perfect choice made by Von Broun for space exploration!

FEBRUARY 28, 2013 02:04 PM Day off. E-mail, old video R1/V2replica, etc.

It is like after the last mid-term exam – next morning you hesitate what to do next. Day off as it is. Well, somebody e-mailed picture of engines – small one is from Isaev’s family (same type used in Russian direct lunar flight/landing). Second (big on a tray) was from antiaircraft/ antimissile S-200.

Last kill 50 people over Black Sea in 2001. Both used heavily toxic fuel (one drop kills all birds in radius 25m), but perfectly reliable. In tragic accident in 2001 Ukrainian military did not have any idea how they shoot down Russian civilian aircraft flying from Israel to Siberia.

If the same e-mail from CESKY ZNALECKY INSTITUT was send to another teams that is attachment with firing/operation/training instructions for a second engine (sorry, in Russian, but math formulas looks nice).

Some engines

Also posted two episodes from Old Russian de-classified technical recording video made in 1948. Was long circulated via internet. Its first customer was Josef Stalin, and then, after, it was used as a training video. A lot of current documentary used some parts of the video recently. Includes frames with Korolev, Chertoc, Glushro, Barmin. In part 4 is a statement: “...V-2 type rocket was successfully replicated from all domestic materials...”.

Video is interesting because of part 4 (in next post). At the beginning was descriptions of all failures (rockets/engnes/etc.), then all failures analyzed and fixes explained. At the end a small portion of a successful flights (not in chronological order).

Closed Captioning added - tried different languages by google translation.

Enjoy and do not consider that video as a post according MTA, it just for recreation == copyright technically should belong to Uncle Joe.

January 04, 2013     AL2O3, SIO2.

 Thanks Boris, in vacuum under temperature Ti2O3 on C surface will be perfectly react with outcome of Ti and CO. Layer of Ti can be formed on top of layer of a C (carbon particles, nanotubes, graphene, just name it). Question how to recycle C – as a first task to catch CO, and second question is to separate CO (as I understand that can be done by chlorella – living creature does it perfectly). And thanks for tip how to make experiments – Clay is Al2O3 + SiO2 — needs to grind to smallest as possible particles. Dried as much as possible. Place dust into a vacuum chamber and try to separate by electrostatics. Low grade of vacuum (1mm) actually will help to charge dust particle. 6 time bigger gravitation force can be compensated. If separation can be achieved – well, it will be good.

December 28, 2012     ALUMINUM. 3D PRINTING.

Thanks, V. Existing, formulas about aluminum extraction process in vacuum and 1/6 earth gravity.

1. Conductive aluminum surface as forming layer for 3D printing part.

2. Al2O3 distributed by electrostatic on top of forming layer.

3. K3ALF6 as a catalyst, distributed by PVD (physical vapor deposition) precisely on a place of a next slice of a printed part.

4. Beam of electrons on the same square area: Al3+ + 3 e−-> 2Al ; O2− - 2 e−-> O ; K3ALF6 evaporates and can be reused.

In vacuum do no need for a carbon electrode – oxygen will be separated without chemical reaction. Also electrical current in vacuum better be done by emitted electrons. Surface of particles are big for unit mass. In 1/6 gravity different fractions does not separates properly, but it will be layer of Al2O3 , isn’t it? Is it possible to reuse K3ALF6? How to collect O2 effectively?

Well, bicycle as it is. Legend from “Historia naturalis” about Tiberius and goldsmith, brought imperator “silver” looking, light, metal’s plate. On imperator’s question: “How did you make it?” Inventor replied: “From clay.” On next question: “Who else does know the process?” Inventor proudly said: “Only Me and Gods”. It was a mistake, to protect his recently investments in silver, imperator ordered to cut of inventor’s head. Nice, unconfirmed story was, until couple years ago some students got aluminum by technology and chemical components available 2000 years ago only. Again, bicycle’s invention is a bicycle invention. Needs to do this on The Moon, not on the earth! Anyway we do not know investments portfolio of other people.

What equipment will be needed to make such experiments?

DECEMBER 26, 2012 10:36 PM Новогодний перевод шутки индейцев майя, по поводу июня, и августа.

(для моих школьных друзей – update for my school’s friends, translation of previous post )

Опустим июль – жарко, мозги плывут. Представим, что современная шпора из википедии недоступна, и уроки Ильи Яковлевича Борца остаются надежным источником информации, а лететь на луну надо. Что стоит, самую простенькую цифру рассчитать – сколько дней в одном годе. Да-да-да – в те самые 365.256363004 дней. Зачем, так, точно? – да лететь пора,  на луну.

Вспомнимаем как учили, подбираем ровную полощадку, втыкаем шест (по не по русски – pole – пол - пол -  полюс), веревку к нему привязываем, окружность рисуем гвоздиком на земле, и загораем пока тень от шеста не пересечет дважды цвиркульную линию. Угол в пополам и север найден. Последнюю тысячу лет процедура называлась ориентирование, по вычислению Ориентира – Ориента – востока, под 90 градусов от направления на севера, а Север, North pole, так и остался под названием шест-полюс.

Дальше больше, полощадка, честно сказать, нужна большая, как футбольное поле, желательно асфалтьрованная, и в то утро, когда начертаная линия пересечется с точкой восхода солнца,  начинаем считать, день, два, три, до 365, тупое занятие по любому счету, если бы не потрясающее зрелище расталдыкнувшихся по белу светушку солнечных лучиков. Мушка для прицеливания на одном краю поля, в виде кирпича. За день солнце пробегает 12 сантиметров по кромке обсерватории, чтобы засечь эти сантиметры нужна прицельная планка (другой кирпич), целиться нужно передвигая второй кирпич, под глазом. Можно конечно в два раза увеличить поле наблюдения – в этом случае кирпичи будут поболее, главное чтоб человек наблюдательный был.

За 365 дней произойдет второе пересечение линии весеннего равноденствия, место  пересечения будет смещено по отношению к предыдущему году,  отметина не совпадет влево на 1-2 сантиметра, можно конечно плюнуть на ошибку – а можно расширить базу наблюдения в два раза. Еще пару лет и подтверждение готово - солнце в течении трех лет делает три маленких шажочка и затем большой прыг назад, в первую позицию. В английском так и называется високосный год (leap) и прыжок(leap). В нем и получили точность 1 год = 365+365+365+366=1461/4=365.25 дней.

Продолжаем наблюдения – еще 43 года и Мэри-Мери! Чудеса! – вместо раз-два-три-четыре солнце сбивается на такт вальса – раз-два-три. Подсчет дней дает 15706, или 365.255814 дней в году, ошибка 1 день за 1821 год.

Следующий сбой такта, в весенние дни придет через 39 лет. Никто так долго не живет, 82 года с начала календаря, но наблюдение заслуживает внимания – високосные года должны сдвигаться - первая сдвижка в 43 года, вторая через 39,  если принять такой календарь, то длинна года 365.2560976 дней и точность 3767 лет, уже что-то. Здесь было бы уместно закомпостировать мозги молодому поколению очарованием ненужных цифр. Ученики, если их правильно организовать продолржут наблюдения в веках.

Че-там дальше. Чем-то больше. В 121 году 44196 дней, точность 6073 года. В 160 году 58441, ошибка 8849 лет. В юбилейный,  в 199,  один год равен 365.2562814 дней, достаточно чтобы не обшибиться в 12255 лет.

Следующие 39 лет пройдут странно и загадочно. Работы ученым по правде сказать не много. Неделю наблюдений в год, а болтологии! А ресурсов – целую площадь в центре заняли, маисом их корми задарма, а тут сгниет за плесенью картофель на корню. Не дело. Надо чтоб польза была, хоть какая! Хоть процесс перегонки алкоголя. Хотя этих студиозов, что с присмотром, что без, они и сами колеса придумают. Короче – темная часть календарной истории – что можно было накуриться, чтобы начать проверять все сосчитанные дни на деление с остатком на все простые числа от 7 до 17. Не судите строго древних  – их технология палочки и веревочки в век компьютерной безграмотности демонстрирует хорошую усидчивость, находчивость и зоркость глаза. Да и не забывайте, не такая уж это сумасшедшая идея - сегодня на изучение деления с остатком компьютерные гиганты и государства тратят большие деньги без остатка – как зашифруешь свою коммуникацию так ее и раскодируют, делимое есть открытый ключ, а в остатке, сообщение.

Короче, крутых мира сего уболтали, деньги на маис выделили и через 39 лет, вот, он, триумф науки и техники! Ликующие граждане бегают по площади воображая свое счастье, ликуюшие гражданки срывают себя что-то и бросают в воздух понимая свое счастье, дети плачут от радости, инкстинктивно догадываясь, что все это придется учить в школе! Прорыв в картине мироздания! 86931 дня разделить на 13, получилось 6687 и остаток НОЛЬ. В году 365.2563015 дней, ошибочка в 16533 года.

На этом судя по всему удача закончилась. Финансирование науки продлили, но следующее число 101176 на 13 не разделилось. Подбили результат, уточнили ошибку - 1 день в 22068 лет. Во избежании конфьюза организовали два календаря. Один официальный, другой основанный на числе 13, секретный, во избежание позора. Финансирование заморозили. Для наглядного примера верхушку академии оставили без маиса. Изобретайте мол, да знайте меру. Из абсерватории устроили лобное место. В астрологию  поступать желающих больше не было, зато на химфаке по 13 человек на место. Что еще в такой интерпретации – 13 дней в неделе и два календаря, сходятся. Начало отсчета и окончание  – високосные годки начинаются не с нуля, нужно учесть смещение, что и будет нулевой точкой. Бывает. Был бы другой орбитальный период земли – прощай число 13. Вот на Тау Кита явно другой, и тау китяне радушны!

Другой вопрос – что притягивало делать подобные открытия, и что тупо тормозило прогресс? Наличие ошибки само по себе, или доступность информации? Фон Браун и Королев искренне надеялись, что на Марсе можно жить. Если бы мэтрам космонавтики была доступна сегодняшняя информация с Куриосити ровера, у Куриосити не хватило бы curiosity(любознательности) добраться до соседней планеты. Знай Колумб правильный радиус земли и провинцию Канады наверняка бы назвали не Британской Колумбией.

А все таки ошибка первична. С удачей. И Википедий и Интернетом, и

с Новым 2013 Годом, Вас, 10-А класс, Донецкой школы.

DECEMBER 24, 2012 02:17 AM 86931 = 6687 * 13, and "Tau Ceti"

If, for some reason, you want to touch the moon, then needs to confirm some of the earth's orbital parameter – i.e. amount of days in one year. Placing additional constrains: that Wikipedia, or JPL's data with planetary and lunar ephemerides, unavailable permanently, brings the question - what does really requires to get value 365.256363004 days?

For a start, as in old procedure, would be good to have some planar ground. By using a pole and a rope needs to draw circle around a vertically standing pole, and wait sunshine. When pole's shadow crosses circle twice, two points and pole defines an angle. Dividing that angle by two equal angles shows direction to North (Pole), opposite point on the circle marks South, and 90 degrees direction orients to Orient (East). Depends on weather it can take 1-2 days.

 For a second step needs to wait sunrise at crossing Equinox's line (East direction). For an observation, the line better be carved on stone(s), a planar ground have to be at least a football field's size. On one side of the 100 yards line, needs to place the permanent marker, and on another side of a field(an observatory), perpendicularly movable marker. With Sun's visible angle == 0.5 degree the permanent marker can be 0.5 yards big, and, yep, heavy. Small, movable markers - targets can be chosen for convenience any size. Couple of days before and after Easter (weather can obstruct observations), needs to mark the position of the movable marker at sunrise. Daily marks would be on a distance of 8-10 cm (3-4 inches) from each other. To achieve double precision, needs to double the size for an Stonehenge complex, or to close one eye. With the Equinox's crossing count of days starts.

 After 365 days were counted, you would found length year's approximation, also another discovery were made, the mark for the Equinox line's crossing is a little bit shifted from previous year's location, difference is small, 2 cm -1 inch maximum, it can be a measurement's mistake, but the mistake would be to close the eye on a shift and to keep the observatory smaller size. After couple years, confirmation comes, the sun makes in 3 years, 3 small moves into one direction, and then one big leap backward. In that leap year you will count 366 days. Wow! One year == 365.25 days.

 Now needs to wait 43 years patiently observing Sun's 3 small shifts per each 3 years, and 1 big leap on 4-th. Nothing to improve in precision, each leap year gives same 365.25 days. Then comes the surprise! Instead twirling pirouette 3-1, the sun whirls 2-1. Once again, give the sun wow! One non-leap year was skipped, and calculation yields 15706 days which are equal 365.255814 days per year, enough precision to make 1 days error in 1821 years.

 Show must go on. Another 36 years (12 times) with circle 365-365-365-366, and then, circle 365-365-366, with a skip of 82-th year. Nobody, with clear mind and such task, would live so long, but that is the payoff: 1 year == 365.2560976, with error: 1 day in 3767 years. Leap year detection by naked eye dramatically improves the calendar's precision. Instead of convenient calendar with 3 regular years and one lead year, needs to have shifting leap year with 43 or 39 years repeatable circle. What will be a measurable error in that case? Lost 82 years without a training students and a teaching them beauty of useless numbers, with goal: apprentices will continue observations.

 In 121 year, same 365-365-366 leap year, and 44196 days brings error ==1 day in 6073 years.

 To be continued. Year 160, 58441 days, 1 day error in 8849 years.

 Year 199 from establishment of an observatory, calculations == 1year ==365.2562814, precision -1 day in 12255 years. Impressive.

 In next 39 years would be interesting and simultaneously boring. Sunrise's observations goes 10 days per year. Rest of the time scholars (now 10-th generation) are working on government’s numerous orders, or may be on they own research and development, successfully produced something drinkable, or inhale-capable. For sure real scientists themselves performs initial tests. Effect was powerful – formed task to analyze already collected data from all shifts-leap-years to check common denominators with prime numbers (please - take it easy – in modern days a lot of algorithms depends on prime numbers! Lets say - ideas was boosted after substance's legalization!). But, pity, none of collected numbers 15706, 29951, 44196, 58441, 72686, was divided by prime number bigger then 3 and less then 23 with remainder equal 0. State of art project requires state of art implementation, including financing.

 And that is how theoretical physics meets experimental one – At Easter day, year 238, priests did final counts, 86931 days! Wow! 86931 divide by 13, == 6687, remainder == 0, it is a invention of the year! Unbelievable improvement in understanding core of the universe (Earth orbit's period) => 86931 / 238 = 365.2563015 days, with an error (1) one day in 16533 years! Theoretical science made peace with practical physics, everybody celebrate by dancing on the streets, the funding prolonged for another 39 years.

 Well, theoretics and practices, be careful with written bla-bla statements, to avoid a fate of heretics, the next number 101176 divide by 13 brings a non zero remainder. Definitely unlucky 13, year 277 become knows as a year of cuts, probably not only in funding. After final improvement of a precision (1 day in 22068 years) nobody was willing to continue job in an astronomy, or astrology. Next generation choose chemistry and psychology. Two calendar will be in use, one official, another – secret to avoid embarrassments. Next stop in history will be calculus theological's implication, but it will different continent.

  Are any problems in such interpretation of a Maya's calendar? Two sets, 13 base – does fit. Capable: 1 day in 56096 years achievable in 394 years observations by naked eye. Well - no direct prove – but future archeologists has the field. Starting, and ending point, not explained. More interesting question - What actually supports creativity, and what blocks it? Errors? Or Information? If Von Braun, or Korolev would know today's data from Curiosity, rover probably would not have chance to fly at all; or making available to Columbus correct earth's radius before sail will rename Beautiful British Columbia definitely.

 Long live errors, luck, Wikipedia, and JPL! Little bit different planet's orbital speed, and bye-bye number 13.

 As for "Tau Ceti" with a livable planet around, well, Youri, we grown together with that song, Perfect prediction


Well, Victor – you right, absolutely - two visible way today – in 2000 was experiments to make Al from Al2O3 in hydrogen plasma (in some blog reference to UDK 541.14 experiments was done in Krasnoiarsk) , and in 2006 was theoretical study on formula 2Al2O3+3C=4AL+3CO2 ( ) again in plasma, was done estimates: 12-14 kWt for 1kg of aluminum at 2400K temperature. Both methods require ether hydrogen or carbon. Carbon is preferable to bring from earth. In second method some amount of a carbon react with aluminum and creates Al4C3, that will require carbon extraction from carbide. Second way requires less energy. Recycle CO2-> C + O2 also will be needed. What do you think ?– can we formulate the real task to investigate instead of just bla-bla - “How to restore aluminum from 2Al2O3 -> 4Al +3O2 under vacuum conditions and lunar environment”, or to forget all this for a first stage and to try separation of Al metal from a lunar dust (some amount already present in moon rock's samples).

Experiment in that case can involve extraction, by static, Al particles, and distribute it to collector to form a wire, then evaporation of the formed wire can create on a concave (or flat, or prism formed) surface some reflector mirror. Simple, light and effective experiment (instead of bringing laser reflector or optical device from the earth will be possible to print it on the moon surface).

December 07, 2012 BLA-BLA-BLA CONTINUES.

Victor – ...With 3D printing on the moon first step will be to separate fractions of a lunar dust. For such porpoise can be used low gravity, vacuum conditions and old vacuum tubes technology. Cathode's material under the heat (as it was in tubes) emits electrons. Anode on some distance from cathode, over regolith (I believe long time ago was an idea to use cathode-anode as a solar battery and theoretical efficiency was pretty high, and heavy) accelerates electrons and part of electrons beamed to a surface of regolith, after some period of charging, charging process stopped, and another plate (charges negatively) placed over regolith, acting as a capacitor’s plate (all of this is from 10 grade physics’ practice book, I believe). Depend of a voltage on a plate, smaller fractions of duct will levitates from a surface, and distributes by weight vertically. Last step - another positive charge applying by tore shaped collector will discharge particles of regolith. Lowing or elevating collector (or by changing voltage of the “capacitor” plate - preferably) will select different fractions. Actually it does not matter how to harvest fraction - static charges, and known formulas can apply. If some fraction will be suitable to make practical object (glass will be first to try) the same principle can apply to a way of delivery dust particle to a surface of printing layers (it will be less mechanical parts in 3D printer).

Surprisingly some of old “school’s” physics bring modern interests – for example charged, same sign, 0.1-100 micron particles, in some conditions can attract each other instead of commonly believed action.

Compact version of useful formulas are in:

Effects on charged dust particles on Moon -

Effects on charged dust particles on equipment:

Plasma with injected 5-60 mkm particles:

Despite of your “contra” about complication of metallurgy process on the moon – and you correct point that this is not our priority today - it is known that aluminum is like “accumulator”, it accumulates energy. Circle – (a) day time producing Al from Al2O3 and (b) night time producing from Fe2O3 +2Al -> heat + 2Fe0 + Al2O3 solves a problem - technological process can work all time without nuclear source.

Surpluses oxygen with aluminum by itself is perfect solid (Al) + liquid (O2) rocket’s fuel+oxidizer.

Can you answer me how that aluminothermic reaction will work not on a tank’s plates welding but on a kainda micro-level – in vacuum, 25 -50 micron size Al and similar size Fe2O3 intersect each other at specific point where controlled heat can apply? It will be nice to make such experiment, today on earth, in big vacuum chamber – but no time, – can you answer what it will be at least theoretically?

And with 3d printing - look what did Markus Kauser :

December 06, 2012 FOR 3D PRINTING.

OK, Victor - in Lunar soil samples:

Plagioclase 30%-35% compositions NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8 , melting point 1100—1550 °C.

Pyroxenes 54%-60% usually for earth that is formula XY(Si,Al)2O6 (X = calcium, sodium, iron+2 , magnesium, rarely zinc, lithium; Y = in smaller size chromium, aluminium, manganese, scandium, titanium, vanadium, iron+2), with melting point 1300°C.

Olivine 3%-8% formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 melting point Mg2SiO4 = 1897°C.

Ilmenite (absent in Lunar highland areas) 18%-2% formula (FeTiO3). Melting point 1400°C.

I understand that to get Ti, Fe, or Al from oxides needs to do all chemical reaction. And standard way does not work, no CO, no H2, no C, no H2O. To get Iron from Fe2O3 it is possible to use Aluminum: Fe+32O3 +2Al -> 2Fe0 + Al2O3, and not sure about Ti. Looks like way to start will be Aluminum, with molten oxide electrolysis (it is 1200C) - will requare a lot of electrisity - but side effect – it will be 40% of the oxygen ! . I am not talking about reaction like Fe+32O3 +2Al it surplus heat at night time!

With 3D printing on the moon first step will be to separate fractions of a lunar dust.


Igor - Assume MW7IC2425 25WT with narrow band PAE 40% will transmit 10WT (40dBm).Assume nRF24L01 sensitivity -85dBm (at 1Mbps). Assume cascade 3 LNA amplifiers (SKY67014-396LF) with noise 4dB, gain 36Db total. On distance 400000km path Loss 212 dB on 2450 MHz, all this will require on both side antennas with 28dBi gain to get -80dBm RX power. Enough to work with nRF24L01’s sensitivity -85dBm and margin for a noise 85-80 = 5dB. Using different LNA amplifiers (MC13850EPR2) will give 6dB noise and 39 gain, outcome in this case -77dBm with margin for noise 85-77 = 8dB. Pretty tight.

To test on Cubesat transmitter == 0.5WT transmit (27dBm), distance 400km path loss 152 dB, symmetrical antennas with 8dBi gain will give in that case -70dBm RX power. That is a goal for test flight.

For first test on ground, transmitter has to be stripped from power amplifier with LNA cascade 26-29dB and direct 1mWt (0dBm) output to same antennas (8dBi) as for Cubesat to get same -71dBm power on RX. Distance has to be 20 km (path loss 126dB). Direct distance = Cyprus – SFU hill ==25, Grouse Mt. – SFU hill == 15km, and Mt. Seymour – SFU == 9 km.

For second test on ground, transmitter with 0.1WT (20dBm) and same antennas require 2km (path loss 106dB) distance for same -70dBm RX. In this case LNA amplifiers hast to be removed, or put into by-pass mode.

To calibrate 8dBi ‘s antennas, power amplifier and LNA has to be both removed and -70dBm RX achieved on distance 200m. Adjusting antennas from original can be done by reducing amount of turn on helix. Perfect spot for this - is my window on 14th floor and a BC place near steam's plant.

Reduced size helical shows 10cm length with 15 dBi, and on 40cm around 28dBi (today it is only speculations). To confirm that needs to test on distance 200m antennas with 1/3 of turns. And after that conformation has to be done on regular helix 8cm (3 turns).

For testing 0.5-1WT PA pretty good is glass windows in my building – glass reduces signal – measuring distance with calibrated 8bDi antenna helix allows to calculate path loss over glass (LNA has to be bypassed) estimation for today is 15-25dB. Distance around 0.5km – 0.7km on spot of Olympic village can be used to test full system. To get -69dBm RX power needs to path loss 112 dB (4km) on 0.5WT or 115dB (5.6km) loss for 1WT.

Useful link for this (instead all formulas searches, implementation inside calc and etc.) -

November 21, 2012 PAE AND EFFICIENCY.

Boris – Q: – if PAE of transmitter amplifier == 40% then around 60% (definitely less, rest is noise) goes to the heat – assuming that a thermal radiation is only available method to heat transfer, then some of the heat will be possible to recycle by reverse Peltier thermoelectric heat pump. That is easy to check on our next tests with 1WT transmitter. Even more - with 25WT eating by amplifier and PAE=40%, 15WT goes to heat, each watt recycled will improve Ecclesiastes' ratio – “time to harvest power” / “time to transmit”, that will give for each one watt recycled = 2% savings in total time transmission == 0.5 low resolution frame per 10 minutes transmission session , or on 16hours (for required 15min HD video) will be 25 minutes savings. Efficiency of Pertier’s elements is kainda a question (especially reverse one) – in some sources it is stated == 5-10% in some up to 50% - needs to make experiments, but even with 5% it will be 1% savings in session time.


Thanks Gregory! – FR-4 PCB’s dielectric constant ranges Er= 4.2 – 5.0 (assumed Er=4.8). Height of dielectric =62mils. Thickness of the board = 1.25 oz/ft^2 (1.7mils). Useful link to calculate Z0 = . Smith’s calculator resources (very good Smith.exe by Prof. Fritz Dellsperger from Switzerland). As a result for MW7IC2425NR1 on reverse calculation impedance on input pin = (58.535 –j9.834) on output pad (5.180+j59.876) – error 20% based on Er error. Looks like will be require for MOSFET to narrow amount of channels from 128 to 32. That can give PAE around 40% - for clamed in spec consuming 25WT it will be 10WT of transmitted power (with harvesting on 3-rd week max = 4- 5WT it will require 6 minutes to harvest for transmitter, 4 minutes for control and 1 minute for transmit totaling == 60sx10K = 600K/min, or 10 minutes == 1 HR picture ,or 24 low resolutions frames, or 15min HR video will be transmitted during 16 hours). On for new design of antenna it is Zc=128om. For switches good HMC784MS8GE(10WT, isolation -32dB). Needs to re-trace PCB, order and test. That is best for today.

Dunno (still on Earth)

ON NOVEMBER 16, 2012 04:34 PM 3D printed CPUs on the moon?

Well, first processors for IBM S/360 computers was done by interesting technology, CPU by itself was a BOOK(!), with conductors laminated into a plastic pages. Current introduced by input inductors around BOOK (sorry CPU) creates tiny current on output conductors on pages, and that current does all processor/logics  job.

Yes, cooling was major problem (efficiency) to be resolved.

Yes, to change microcode (operations performed by CPU) needs to open CPU’s BOOK, remove old pages, and insert new.

Yes, it was difficult to design such computer (USSR for example just copycat existing pages from S/360), and etc. problems.

But today it is possible to 3D print such BOOK (CPU) as one device from titanium, debug it, tested it (CPU for example can support system of command of a specific, exsisting processor) and then simply re-print CPU  on the moon.

Yep – speed can be slow. Well, size will be big, but old technology can help to make self-suntanned base on the Moon.  All computers required for the mission can be built on the moon except initial amount delivered from the earth.

The same can be done for amplifiers devices required for a communications/input/output units – vacuum and dust on the moon is free, emissions of electrons works same way under solar radiation (instead of heat) and old century’s triodes, pentodes are perfect to replicate by current 3D printing technology.  Why tubes? – Well solar radiation can kill electronics, but tubes will be OK! Story of Kemurdjian's team (Lunokxod-1,2 designer) show interesting twist about tubes – after Chernobil explosions, on roof of the reactor to clean radioactive debris was tried different rovers. All advanced robotics failed in first minutes – and only one was working – on tubes – it was a rover from Kemurdjian's team.

That’s it for today dusty update.

NOVEMBER 15, 2012 01:58 PM Class D and class E,F amplifiers.

Alex- correction for previous post about class D:  “. . .PAE (Power Added Efficiency) can be around 100%. Some matching for impedance should be done, but that is a minor question.. . .”

Last statement is not true. According: matching impedance eats 60% of efficiency. Suggestion in article to use Class E

with proper impedance matching in topology. But for class E and Bluetooth this also stated in that with 22.7 dBm (186mW) it is 36%PAE and for 26.4 dBm (437 mW) PAE = 30%. Needs to ask – does they actually made such device or it is just theoretical calculations on simulators.

Tubes/wave. To make experiments needs to have ability to get high vacuum inexpensive way – glass can be printed, everything can be printed and packed into glass. It is funny – to get the vacuum (free on the orbit) needs to have a vacuum (expensive on earth) – Isn’t it?   

Antenna will arrive tomorrow. It will be possible to make measurements with 0dBm to compare helical and modified helical designs. I discussed today with Boris crazy idea about make modified antenna with active antenna’s sections. He looked at me like professor of physics looks at perpetuum mobile’s inventor. Active antenna skipped.

And you have no idea what I bought looking for wave tubes!  PDP-11 processor! – Old! golden pins shining brightly! (at least on picture). It will be embedded into Cube-sat – may be we can connect a power pin to a ground!

Yours truly


NOVEMBER 21, 2012 04:32 PM PAE and efficiency.

Boris – Q: – if PAE of transmitter amplifier == 40% then around 60% (definitely less, rest is noise) goes to the heat – assuming that a thermal radiation is only available method to heat transfer, then some of the heat will be possible to recycle by reverse Peltier thermoelectric heat pump. That is easy to check on our next tests with 1WT transmitter. Even more - with 25WT eating by amplifier and PAE=40%,  15WT goes to heat, each watt recycled will improve Ecclesiastes' ratio – “time to harvest power” / “time to transmit”, that will give for each one watt recycled = 2% savings in total time transmission == 0.5 low resolution frame per 10 minutes transmission session , or on 16hours (for required 15min HD video) will be 25 minutes savings. Efficiency of  Pertier’s elements is kainda a question (especially reverse one) – in some sources it is stated == 5-10% in some up to 50% - needs to make experiments, but even with 5% it will be 1% savings in session time.

NOVEMBER 14, 2012 01:54 PM Class D amplifier. (translation).

Alex- Finally got what is class D amplifier (thanks for Sasha ‘s tip) – two MOSFET with similar characteristics (one is N another is P type) working as switches. Gates and drains connected, one source (P)on a power another source (N) on a ground. In simulation shows when on gates voltage low then 1.1V, then on drains is ground, and when on gates >1.1v, on drains VDD. Even gain around 8-10Db can be achieved, but it does not matter. If to skip the gain then switches will be in open or closed state, as a result PAE (Power Added Efficiency) can be around 100%. Some matching for impedance should be done, but that is a minor question. Switching voltage depend on MOSFETs, the same can be said about impedance matching design. On exits needs to put filter to make sin-cos-things.

 Simple like a Byte! Isn’t it?

Some researchers (in scientific patents) stated  that it can be important solution for low cost tooth-blue’s  power amplifier because GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shifting Keying == shift 180 degree) less picky then π/4DQPSK (45 degree shifting) and 8DPSK(8 phases). On Wi-Fi that idea does not work.

But like in that funny story about the hunter lost direction in a forest, does not matter what you find, matter how can use it.

a) Variety MOSFETs for 2.4Ghz available only in one polarity. Maximum what can be constructed from such devices is class A, A-B (theoretical PAE 60%)

b) Check for available switches bring “Ops”. Switches working on huge frequencies with power 1-5 watts can switch from channel to channel with maximum frequency up to 1GHz (1 nanosec), and for 2.4GHz  needs to have 0.41(6) nano – Oops in full scale.

Well, what is about “space” – yep – looks like it working but topology for such chip needs to be ordered as customer’s order. Prices in that case will be around big green numbers.

With switches looks like more complicated case – restrictions on good toys is in place – you know –

What was left – (a) tubes, but needs to account power for heating, all those passive and active induct-capas-res-tors on the way into the tube and a signal's path out. (b) Traveling Wave tubes. (c) go to school to learn how transistors are working.

That’s it. Nicht gut. Today best is PAE 50% maximum, may be for Cubesat it is Ok but definitely not for the moon, solar panels on shoelaces required.

Yours truly,


NOVEMBER 13, 2012 07:35 PM Class D Amplifier. (translation will be later)


Наконец-то понял, че такое класс Д усилитель (туп был - сознаюсь! спасибо Саше за подсказку) - два полевых транзистора (один N другой P полярности) одинаковых характристик работают как ключи - входы (затворы) соеденены вместе, истоки запаяны тем же кренделем - сток одного на питании, сток другого на земле.

Когда на входе одно значение (0) то на истоках земля == 0 вольтов - а при значении 1 на входе == на истоках получается питание.

За счет того что схема сидит либо в открытом, либо закрытом состоянии КПД достигает 100%

Все просто как байт.

После выхода ставят фильтр для обрезания в синусоиду - некоторые утверждают (в высокоученых публикакциях), что зело быть решение для усилка мощьности голубозубого == т.к. максимум надо чтоб пролез сдвиг по фазе на 180 градусов. (для Вай-Фай не подходит = там что-то замучено со сдвижкой).

Но, как в том анекдоте, с заблудшим в лесу мужиком, от отчаяния кричащим - А-УУ! - Услышь-те ! Памаги-те! Кто-нибу-ть! - кричал -кричал - вдруг, кто-то ему лапу на плечо - оборачивается - медведь - Ну хорошо мужик - вот я тебя и услышал - а поможет ли тебе это?

так и у меня - от того что что-то нашел - не значит что решение найдено - 

Пунктик номер один - на нужную частоту полевые транзисторы только одной плярности. Максимум что можно собрать из таких транзисторов, это класса А-Б усилитель (тетеретическийКПД максимум 60% )

 Пункт номер два - прикинул что можно использовать обычные свитчи - ан -нет! - свитчи пашущие на сумашедших частотах, с мощностями 1-5 ватт, (!) переключаются с канала на канал (!) с максимальной частотой только до одного гигагерца (1 наносекунда) - а надо 2.4гига (или 0.41 и шесть в периоде наносукунды).

Начал рыть, а как же для космоса работают - да работают - только топологию для такого устройства разрабатывают индивидуально - после разработки профессора пишут статью - а цена такой цацки минимум 100 штук зеленых.

А для свичев пронблема еще веселей - судя по всему лапу наложили ребята с шевронами - и хотя есть надежда как в случае с гироскопом - в спецфикации одно, а на деле переключаются быстрее - но это вряд ли! - должны бдить!

Остаются радио лампы - но у них дикие габариты - нужно учитывать все емкости и индуктивности по пути в лампу и из оной. Или лампы бегущей волны. Или изучать принцыпы работы транзисторов.

Вот такая карусель получается - максммум КПДна сегодня  50% - для кубсата может быть ОК - а для луны явно не хватит батарей - на шнурок придется дополнительную привязывать - что не есть зер-гут!

November 13, 2012. - Update on CSA, PDSTS/STDP Announcement of Opportunity.

Update on CSA, PDSTS/STDP Announcement of Opportunity:

Today answer from CSA on a proposal titled: “Canadian Micro Satellite launcher. Phase one. Estimates and supportive technologies”:

. . . . the proposal is not eligible for the following reasons:

1. The proposal is not linked to the Program Objectives as launchers are not currently a priority at the Canadian Space Agency;

2. The proposal is not an eligible project as defined in the Announcement of Opportunity since launchers are also not considered a spacecraft platform. . . .

Proposals by itself is:

November 2, 2012. - Q&A -"Neznaika On The Moon";

Today my son (sorry == Technical Director) come and tell – “Father (sorry == Team Lead) you mislead me for such long time!” To reply – “OK, but you should not blame me for a Santa’s nonexistence”. He tells the story as it is. - “Not a Santa ! But guidance book that you use for lunar project!”

Day ago he visited his Russian speaking friends, and explained project’s highlights. First reaction was a smile, then attempt to suppress laugh, then, when he came to point of recent Google Lunar XPRIZE development and Team Plan B particularly, all family, including small child, starts loudly laughing and rolling over laminated floor. Confused he asked to explain such reaction – friend with tears told that they just finished read children book “Donno on The Moon” (“Neznaika on The Moon” from the “Do-Not-know” hero name). And looks like all guidance for the project (at least Plan B) coming from: and it is even possible to predict what will be next steps: or it is possible to watch everything on Youtube: (sorry - no translation to the English available yet).

Well, my Technical Director, that book was so popular in grade five that it was virtually impossible to get it, was available for read only when book’s owner was busy to do math quizzes.

And those are original pictures from 1965.

Inventor. Good boy.

Inventor. Good boy. Glasses. Hard working. Little bit crazy. Practical approach. In conflict with “official” theoretical science.

accidentally discovered antigravity

Main invention: Moonstone (failed from the moon). Accidentally discovered antigravity showed up all over the village. Donno / Neznaika get hit by cooking pod. Boiling water spilled. Fortunately doctor was nearby.

Rocket. Design. Drawings.

Discovery must be utilized. Rocket. Design. Drawings. Break engine on the top. Incredible details for kid’s books.

shoes needs to be nailed at working place

At antigravity (weightlessness) shoes needs to be nailed at working place.


Spaceport in the village. Secretly build in one night.

needs to be careful with any technology

Antigravity again. Side effects in a pond (needs to be careful with any technology).

Not really bad boys, but curious.

Donno and his friend. Not approved for space flight. Not really bad boys, but curious. Security measures were not taken properly on the launch pad.

Accidentally pressed button.

Accidentally pressed button. (All buttons should be labeled. Read first. Do not touch what you do not know).

Automated guidance system.

Automated guidance system. (Moon rock attracts by the moon and direct flight was possible – Donno don’t know how to operate a rocket – learn, learn and learn – that is a school for!).

First steps.

Exploring. First steps.


More explorations. Curiosity. Moon’s caves.

Do not forget to tie you shoelaces!

Looks like mine on the moon. Definitely it is a way. Do not forget to tie you shoelaces!

The Moon is empty inside, with mass concentrates inside

Here it is! Curiosity brings troubles, and discovery can be made: ice on the moon located deep under surface, the moon has different density, with mass concentrates inside, with a breathable air (where is the ice there is an air!), . . .


. . . and Lunatics lives there.

Now needs to give a bit of explanation. Year was 1965. Cold war, you know, small kids needs to be properly trained that capitalism is bad, and it is located on the moon, and a life is a flip of a coin.

friend can get lucky

One friend can get lucky.

study, study and study at school, otherwise the end will be predictable

Another is not. (Again need to study, study and study at school, otherwise the end will be predictable).

escape is only choice

… attempt to escape is only choice.

Giants Plants Inc.

Confused Donno and local criminals. Giants Plants Inc. was registered as public trade company. Business plan – to bring to the moon seeds of a giant, non-genetically modified cucumbers, watermelons and etc.. Enterprise was successful from start, but big corporations – you know story - greens against globalization. Donoo leaning to anarchism and that is his source of troubles. Arrested, and send to Paradise Island with no school around.

Who took the rocket?

Now back on earth - Is it a joke? Who took the rocket?

Let’s build another one.

All right. Not big deal. Let’s build another one. More usual design, 3 rockets’ stages, basic principles of orbital mechanics. Practical science shakes hands with theoretical, couple months of work, rocket done.

lack of funding in scientific community

Back on moon. Telescope. Detects gravitons. Dreams for scientists. Because of a lack of funding in scientific community just gravitons, otherwise it can be bigger, and detect photons and radio waves.

Rescue mission

Rescue mission (antigravity drive is really cool!).

Safety first!

That is how it should be done! Safety first! Team work!

Newton’s laws

That is what can happen if you do not consider Newton’s laws!

do not spend all day watching TV

Profession - reporter. It is tough, especially at hot spots. And do not smoke – burning cigarette can start a fire! And do not spend all day watching TV- you can start drinking!

island of the Fools

Donno is happiest boy, he was rescued from the island of the Fools, where only genetically modified food was provided, as a result kids watches movies and sleeps in a movie’s theater at night, plays all days on playground. Side effect of GMF – no thought about the schools or attempts to escape from island. Does not matter what you think but antigravity is cool!

You don't know how lucky you are, boy - Back in the US - Back in the US - Back in the USSR

After rescue. Friends flying together as one flock, leading by experienced scientist.

Let’s keep earth free from extraterrestrial microbes.

Quarantine back on earth. High fever. Slow recovery. Let’s keep earth free from extraterrestrial microbes. See you doctor regularly.


Book is really good. Lots of humor. Recommended for ages 5-10. Coin was printed in 2008 (Russia) to commemorate Dunno and his writer Nikolay Nosov. Postal stamp in 1992.

In 1997 was made cartoon with political correctness introduced - removed criticism of capitalism, girly names have been changed to more euphonious (“Daisy” and etc.), girls persistently asks: “Why boys do not play with us? And to not take us into a space flight?”. Donno’s buddy (on the moon) instead of boy (name “Kozlik” == “kid goat”) become a girl (new name “Zvestochka”==”Small Star”), romance with earth’s boy and moon’s girl submitted and two computer equipped with voice recognition and speech human interface used as an automated guidance system, The Moon become green. Son – I promises to read that book to your daughter when she will be 5.

September 28, 2012. -  "Alouette 1" anniversary.

On September 29 will be 50 years anniversary of a first Canadian satellite “Alouette1” launched:  Canada was a third country build its own satellite after USSR and USA.

ON SEPTEMBER 27, 2012 01:11 PM one mold's part left

Mold for left tube holder/longeron:

Mold 2

stepper motor sleeve / ceramic bearing holder.

Mold 2

Extrusion of PVA filament is tricky. Filament needs to keep dry – In Vancouver it is hard – as a result needs to cut “spaghetti” 10-25 m long. Estimation of required length in 3D printing software kind of sketchy. Mistake in manual measurement can ether ruin part or extruder can stop thread's extrusion. Loosing part better then stops – PVA in extruder coagulates if left for a long time under 190C.

Video capture and remote desktop essential in this case – from cellular phone it is possible to do check process remotely. Safety is mandatory also – nobody knows what happen if experimental technology will generate sparks. Pictures in last posts was not captured intentionally but rather as a "side effect" of 3D printing process.

Even with all of printer’s problems it is not comparable with time savings.

ON SEPTEMBER 25, 2012 12:47 PM Frame part. mold 2.

Mold 2 Another part done

ON SEPTEMBER 24, 2012 04:25 PM Molds - funny part.

Funny part of the molds/rover frame creation – first mold was made from alumini – epoxy and carbon sweeter (knotted) of a frame was placed into mold – first (93C) and second (163C) cure was done and after process comes the truth – mold can not be disassembled – all attempts was failed. After some consideration was chosen method for disassembling combined with a drop test (14 floor in downtown Vancouver) strata for the building do not allow to throw from the windows cigarettes butts, but nothing in regulation was about lunar rover. Attempt was made with precaution under cover of the night, mold with carbon part of a frame fly freely – and – mold + frame part survived impact solidly. Fortunately manager of the building was on vacation.

ON SEPTEMBER 24, 2012 04:00 PM Mold printing

Complicated carbon fiber parts for rover and ground
stations, require complicated molds. Design such molds require quite a time to
be properly designed. As a solution for fast mold design was choose 3D printing
technology with material withstand temperature for a 1 stage cure (93C) of
epoxy and mold dissolvable in water. Material is PVA (in long spaghetti form),
and printer is Mendel Prusa. It takes a time (1 month) to build such printer
mostly because printer is in experimental stage, source code in 3 different
languages, technology require precise temperature control, adjustments for
experimental filaments like PVA is mandatory / complicated, extruders is in
experimental stage too. But after questions with software and temperature
control was sorted out, 3D printing allows to simplify mold design. Now it
takes 5-7 times faster to make suitable mold then when mold was made from
alumini plastic. Alumini plastic actually better suited to work in molds – it can
hold second curing temperature (163C) for epoxy, but saving time is more advantageous
in that case. Another advantage is to have 3D printer at hands – this is allow another
time savings – ordering via online alumini molds can not be done faster then
two weeks cycle.

You can see captured screen of a printer printing
first (base) part of the dissolvable mold –

Mold Base

For sure software (ether java or pyton ) require improvements – estimated time to finish print shows
years to finish task, and who knows! – may be software estimation is right ;-)

ON SEPTEMBER 24, 2012 02:05 PM Quick update.

I would say (to my surprise) it is not bad as I was expected. Last 3 months it was communication – now I believe we have good antenna (CTO even insists to get patent), for ground station sorted out questions with mold creation – it is combined technology with dissolvable mold and alumini parts (takes a lot of time to make 3D printer working but now it saved a lot of time in design), amplifiers starts to give a promising gain. Temperature stabilization for a craft and satellite – study was done – problems and solutions for electronics temperature control was outlined. Stepper motors modes was also done study – there some promising development with precisions in antenna’s orientation. Everything ready for debugging algorithms on inclination table (simulation moon gravity). On a business front there is interesting development – we made attempt to push for Canadian microsatellite launcher – our proposals/ ideas was in a form of special letter for Canadian Space Agency. Now we are working on a signing process from supporting business. Nothing is visible now but… Problems not resolved et – power station, solar panels, With power it is hard – without experiments on an orbit with Cubesat everything is in a fog. Video – not much - we have may be 15-20 min video for communication tests – raw video – may be next month we can make video with frame (rover/ground station) creation and wheels testing on inclination table.

ON SEPTEMBER 13, 2012 12:36 PM Mold's creation == material PVA == work in progress

... formula” creates cycles of temperature by itself. Period is 1min 20 sec and period is stable, even after 20 minutes it stay amplitude and period the same. To repro situation needs to compile firmware (Sprinter) and monitor temperature in ReplicatorG. That is definitely creates a problem with extruder in case: for PVA stating flow point is 180C, starting coagulation temperature for PVA is 200C. Setting target temperature to 190 makes extruder jam when temperature drop to 180, and melt flow index = 0. That make pressure inside extruder jump, and small jam created. On another hand when temperature reach 200 it coagulates PVA on a surface of extruder (that will contribute to a jam in a future). Firmware with PID enable (I do not know correct name = “#define PIDTEMP 1” uncommented) is not capable to print PVA without jam. To avoid problem need to find solution ether by releasing extra pressure, or by different algorithm of regulation. Tried setting HEATER_CHECK_INTERVAL to 50 ms – amplitude of cycle dropped to +-5C, period was same, and I believe this is not because of algorithm as it is – just coincidence – when I debugged formula in spreadsheet – in each interval of time it jumped for one bigger value for heater_duty to a smaller value. With 50ms looks like it just “skipped” some of that jumps. When I tried different interval it just returned to same +-10C. For a plastic with more stable parameters of melt flow index (PLA/ABS) that problem with temperature regulation in extruder is not big impact – plastic flows in a range of +-10C and index is different but varies not much. Also checked “regular” temperature control (with PIDTEMP commented out) in this case when temperature reaches 191 it switches off, when it is low then 190 –then it is on. Cycles become shorter, and temperature variation is +-5C. Then I did experiments with heat absorber (I hold heater by big pliers – good contact and good heat adsorption). PID formula works better then on-off algorithm when there is a flow of a heat to cold pliers, when pliers become hoot (around 60 C – temperature when plastic insulation on pliers did allow to hold it in hands more) then “on-off” started to work better. Definitely to improve extruder for 3D printer needs to control temperature better then +-5C. Task by itself is interesting not only for dissolvable mold creation, but also for a temperature control in vacuum when only radiation of a heat can be done for “heat flowing out”.

ON AUGUST 09, 2012 03:03 PM Questions, questions, and more questions.

Hello Serg!

Files with schematics - and file with PCB of 2.4 amplifier.

If provider will block files use .zip

I use ExpressPCB – not best but not bad – most important for me – I get PCB manufactured on a 3 day after order.

Antenna for ground station - , Antenna for Cube Sat -


antena ..


Bluetooth -

Power amplifier-

Low noise amplifiers -

Switches -

Voltage regulators 500ma  and 100 ma

All components in database -

In Australia on two antennas like for ground station with regular wi-fi distance 12km without problem – limit is horizon (or height of antenna mount) – no need for any amplifiers — I think with 20-40mwt for wi-fi distance can be 20-60 km. If to connect Bluetooth that it must work on 1 km. One man claimed that on 4 antennas together (made less fancy made then my – people used cut PVC sewage pipes) he get signal from Mars orbiter.

Schematic which I send in last tests was without regulators 3.3v – for power amplifier and for LNA. I removed them and connect 3.3v from 1amp regulator – regulators works somehow unstable – I think is just some of my mistake with capacitors – I need individual regulators for Bluetooth+PIC and separate supply for a TX and RX

R1 and R2 in power amplifier — I set 2.9V by a separate variable resistor for a voltage reference – conformed value – in original schematic was bug - fixed

С26 — my inserts — otherwise switches does not works – another bug – fixed

С34 — same bug - fixed

L2 — have no idea - in typical application 12nH – but I put 8.2nH

Then I fixed problem in control signals for TX-RX – was stupid bug in tracing.

Then was a bug in soldering on U4 (I believe this is when I baked voltage regulator 3.3 100ma)  

Then was bug with sizes — capacitors size 402 (1мм х 0.5мм) and  resistors 805 (2мм х 1.25мм), but on PCB I placed all sizes 402 – as a result I have to cut spaces for a bigger resistors and 10uF capacitors.

If two antennas used then stable signal is over open air - 500 -670 m. If one antenna will be behind window glass then distance reduced to 120m. If I put amplifiers, then on 500m over glass packets travels fine. Another sign that power amplifier somehow working – with antennas only (1mwt) behind trees no receptions on 100m – with amplifiers at the same spot perfect reception. Also over air 500m is definitely better reception (LED blinking only on packets used in protocol – period of blinking give rough estimates). But power amplifier should give 36 dB – am I right or not – input 1mwt – 36dB output 1Wt (current also shows 350 ma)? If it is 1Wt – than signal must be really strong – even on another side of downtown with reflection I should see reception? With 1mwt I perfectly get reflection from nearest building – with 1Wt – no reflection – only direct open air.

Run with CubeSat prototype at 3AM aroundVancouveris interesting task – all Boms are curious – usual question – Is that technology can be used to get high? At day time it is funny too – tourists 

I also do not understand – first – capacitors on RF-IN RF-OUT? What sizes of traces before and after capacitors should be?

And actually what for that capacitors? – lest assume for decoupling.  Then why on power amplifier it is 1.2pF and for LNA it is 2.4pF? – Frequency of a sample application for a same 2.4GHz, or this picoF just what you have today for soldering? Or this pico depend on width and length of a trace?

Does they depend on a height? No seriously – after soldering a lot of buggers on traces – trace like hatchbacks – does it require to clean buggers or make it bigger – to adjust picoF? Then thickness of PCB – how account this?

And what a hack this L1 – bloody inductor! In recommendation it is stated: “Could be removed (really?!) if -7dB(?!) return (!?) loss (??!) is acceptable (?!)” – What loss? Why loss back? — is it -8 is OK and -6 is very bad? What is ACCEPTaBLE? dB of what? And that documentation is really good – in other specs for a different chips – only pins – event horizon for a creativity – try what you like with combinations 16*15*14*… etc.

Now antenna – I soldered it on J3 over capacitor (1.2?.2.4?) – as on a picture – direct connection of a antenna to a capacitor and without capacitor – What will be proper way to soldering /connect with or without?

Then connection to a Bluetooth – today it is a coaxial 25cm (2.4Ghz length of wave) in a future Bluetooth will be on same PCB but now coaxial – question – from a point of connection length/width of a trace to capacitors should be??? 1/6 or 1/32 of wave’s length. Or nature likes different fractions?

Next – “50om /85 mil” or “50om/120mil” or something even more mysterious – “50om RFIN” “50om RFOUT” – Yes I know – it was a man with a last name Ohm – also Ommm is Tibetan song – and what? 120mil * 3 = 360 +15 = 375 = small bottle in liquor store. But how liquor store related to U=I*R?

May be needs additional amplifier? The power amplifier designed to work for wi-fi. And 1mWt is not enough to work?

Also on schematics present noise canceling QHX220IQT7. But I am fighting with difference noise - in a head mostly. I even did not soldered it.

If you understand – you help will be appreciated. My knowledge is limited in RF area - as you know.



ON AUGUST 07, 2012 11:20 PM Questions about amplifier

 Привет Серега!

 Файлы со схематикой - and с печатной платой (я также добавил эти файлы в письмо.

 Если мой дурацкий провайдер на загрузиться попробуй

 Программа — ExpressPCB – такая — немного ограниченная - не дорогая — ее пользую — главное - плату получаю на второй день после заказа

 Антена - для граунд станции и антена на спутнике



Antenna ...

 блутюз -

 усилитель мощности

 низкошумящие усилители


 регуляторы 500 ма 100 ма

 все компоненты которые я использую в базе данных -

если взять просто две антены (для граунд станции) то австралийцы работают на расстоянии 12 км просто подключив на wi-fi бокс эти антены — ограничение горизонт — высота на которую поднимают антены — никакие усилители в .том случае не нужны — я думаю при 20-40мв для wi-fi должно хватить и на 20км-60 км. Если поставить блутюз то наверно будет работать на километр. В принципе чувак на счетверенную такую антену (наматывают проще меня - на канализационную трубу) принимает сигнал с марс орбитера.

 схемы которые я тебе прислал в последнем варианте я выпаял регуляторы 3.3 вольтов как для усилителя мощьности так и для низкошумящего усилителя и подсоединил 3.3 вольтов 1 ампер — вел себя регулятор совсем загадочно — поэтому и выпаял

 R1 and R2 в усилителе мощности — я поставил делитель и подобрал сопротивление чтобы было 2.9 вольт — подтвердил осцилографом — в оригинальной схеме была ошибка - исправил

 С26 — моя вставка — иначе свитчи не работают — ошибка которую исправил

С34 — тоже - исправил ошибку

L2 — не знаю почему но поставил вместо 12nH — 8.2nH

 затем исправил сигналы управляющие TX – RX – была глупая ошибка разводки

 затем была ошибка пропайки на U4

 затем ошибся с размерчиками — конденсаторы 402 (1мм х 0.5мм) а резисторы 805 (2мм х 1.25мм) а я все зафуговал 402 — пришлось резать перед пайкой граунд особождать место для больших резисторов.

 если работать на одни антены то устойчивый прием по воздуху 500 -670 метров. Если антену занести за стекло — то ничего не принимает и не передает — когда поставил усилители — то на 500 метров проибивает через стекло — чувствуется что усилитель начал работать — еще один признак работающего усилителя — когда захожу за деревья — с услилителем достаточно направить антены — работает (а за темиже деревьями с одной антеной — ни гу-гу) — также кажеться работает улилитель низкошумящий — на расстоянии 500 метров по воздуху прием в обе стороны был более уверенный чем на чистые антены

 Что я не понимаю — первое — это конденсаторы на выходе и на входе — какой длинны нужно держать трассы до и после конденсатора ?

 И нахрень эти конденсатьры? Допустим для развязки — почему тогда в примере на усилитьль мощьности 1.2 пикоФарады а на низкошумящий 2.4 пикофарады — или эти пики типа, что попало под руку? Или эти пикофарады завясят от длинны х ширины ?

 А от высоты не зависят? - Не я серьезно - пока все пропаяешь, на дорожки припоя - насоплишь - горбатые дорожки получаются — нужно ли эти сопли убирать или наоборот соплями регулировть пикофарады? А толщина платы - наверно на емкость тоже влияет?

 На кой ляд L1 – он мне столько крови попил — в рекомендованой схеме написано — Could be removed (really?!) if -7dB(?!) return (!?) loss (??!) is acceptable (?!) - Кому ЛОСС ?почему ПОТЕРЯ ВЗАД? — а что -8 это значит нормально? или -6 это совсем плохо? DB чево? — а в каких случаях АКСЕПТАБЛЕ — и это я скажу очень грамотная документация — по другим усилителям мощьности даже ножек не приводят — паяй чо-хош — 16х15х15х... комбинаторных комбинаций — простор для творчества.

 Теперь антена — я ее припаивал на J3 через конденсатор и без конденсатьра — вся плата как на снимке - тонкий провод прямо на конденсатор — Yes ! вызывает интерес — антену как по науке паять - с конденсором или беc?

 Теперь подсоединение к блутюзу — сейчас это кусок японскиго коаксиального уабеля (покупаю по большому блату и только у Ли на Мэйне — у других если коаксиал дак солидный - в мизинец) длиной 25 см (длинна волны 2.4 Гига - в будущем прямо на плате буду паять блутюз, но сейчас кабелюка) вопрос - от точки припайки до конденсаторов сколько должно быть — 1/16 ? 1/32 ? - длины волны? Или природа знает другие дроби?

 Дальше — везде говорят «50 ом / 85 mil” or “50om /120mil” – и умные такие фразы «50 ом выход» «50 ом на вход» — ну да! был такой дядя - Ом, жену даже может Омшей звали— из тибета— с ударением на согласную - все зудили ом-м-м - — ну и что! — 120 mil – это понимаю — на троих будет 360 — в аккурат чекушка — разливающему бонус 15 грамм - Но причем тут Ом?

 Может надо предварительный услилитель сварганить от блутюза ? — всетаки усилитель мощьности для Wi-Fi. - а я его блутюзом — он бедненький поднатужится поднапружиться — а мощьности нет как нет

 Там еще на схеме шумоподавитель на QHX220IQT7 – но не с тем шумом борюсь сейчас — я ее даже и не припаивал.

 Как сказанно в понедельнике — не интегрируется функция типа звездной статистики - там они потрошили золотую рыбку, а затем задавались вопросом - чего она плавает - потому что ауквариум с живой водой или от осознания сказочной реальности. А у меня ни воды, не аквариума, ни мыслей, ни золотой рыбки, один ступор. Может тебе чего в голову придет


ON JUNE 06, 2012 01:51 PM Communication range testing.

Well, communication protocol done. Now core BT module (cubesat/lunar modem) is capable to work in modes:

(a) 3 frequencies listening; 3 frequencies for transmit; 2 from 3 majority bits correction, bits shifting correction fix for preamble lost; synchronization of a frequency switch; lost switch frequency correction; adjust frequency on temperature drift.

(b) 1 frequency listening; 1 transmitting; the same functionality as on (a) but switching is disabled.

(c) 1 frequency listening; 3 transmitting; again same functionality; that will be main mode for a cubesat and lunar probe.

(d) 3 frequency listening; 1 transmitting; difference from (a) that it will be 3 receivers monitoring 3 frequency but transmitting goes over 1 frequency. That mode will be on ground station – to maximize probability for cubesat/lunar probe to get less noisy data;

In mode (d) instead of processing and fixing packets inside micro processor data will be tunneled to a PC and fix of data can be done locally on a more powerful desktop, or distributed to network of a computers for simultaneously error correction (for such process can be used screen savers with instant win notification for a Team Plan B supporters).

Mode (c) allow to have transfer data from cubesat/lunar probe without delay for frequency switch synchronization. That can increase data transfer from 50 kbit/sec to 70-80. Transfer date for upload is not critical. Another reserve is tweaking core module from 250kbs to 1mbs – that can give increase of a speed up to 160kbs for download data from cubesat/lunar probe, for sure such increase will require more computer power after ground station processing, and will make a sense only with good network of a “fixing” packets screen savers.

Why to invent a communication protocol? Usually 99% of a time of software development spend (lost) on following standards. Needs to do something fast == ignore standards and write from scratch (see code at

Range test, two helical antennas, one for Cubesat prototype 3 turns, another for a ground station with 1/3 of a turns on 3D printed antenna, transmitting power 1mWt, LNA 12dB. Normally that is a Bluetooth with a range of 10m. Testing on 25m == OK, testing on 100m == OK, but it shows that best reception will be with antennas pointing 10-15 degrees up instead of direct pointing (do not judge seriously = truly speaking designers was zero experience in antenna’s design), test over water at False Creek at Vancouver did not show good reception – looks like ground or water disturb signal, lifting tripod with transmitter and receiver manually just 1m up improve communication. Problem was corrected on a 5 block near Queen Elisabeth Park – road is strait, not much cars, hills from both side == manual holding and pointing allows to confirm communication over 450m.

That actually brings limits of a test for a ground station, the best place will be a Squamish Chief == face of cliff is around 700m and ground station has to be pointed with 45-60 degree to horizon.

Next step – amplifiers to increase power transmitting to 1Wt (in Canada allowed 4Wt), and mobile ground station assembly/functionality.

ON APRIL 12, 2012 12:29 PM Reply to Jenisha

Hi Jenisha

Question that I am interesting based on (page 481 book by Boris Chertok reference in Russian version it is better to read but anyway):

"During Molniya-1’s third and subsequent spaceflights a rapid degradation of the photovoltaic converters (FEP) was detected.(33) It was the manifestation of a little known effect of irradiation when passing through near-Earth radiation belts. Another factor affecting the performance of the solar arrays was thermal cycling—a temperature differential from plus 120 degrees in the Sun to minus 180 degrees in the shade during each orbit.

In 1966, to reduce degradation and extend the life of the solar arrays, Lidorenko’s institute introduced a silica glass coating to the working surfaces of the photovoltaic cells. We had to give in and increase the mass, but we had some leeway there, thanks to the efforts of Dudnikov’s designers. Additional solar arrays shaped like special pleated curtains were installed, which made them heavier. When needed, the curtains opened and fresh elements that hadn’t been harmed by radiation or thermal cycling were put into operation."

Because I do not have access to good solar cell – I need to presizley know how available to me cell will perform. According Boris Chertok in one month I can loose half of the power on a Lunar mission.

Thanks for information about Sensormetrix. They are out of my reach. I have to developed everything by myself.


Alex Dobrianski

ON APRIL 11, 2012 02:43 PM Reply to Rick.

Hi Rick, I can not use any available kits. Bunch of reasons.

For power plant it will be:

(a) Solar panels – I tried 3 types -


then monocrystalline

Triply junction is not available for me now – but everybody tells me that is a best choice.

Question is (my question) which one will be better performed on a orbit – I am interesting in a particular case – how they will be deteorate under solar wind at least on a low earth orbit. I do not have such information for those solar panels – looks like I’ll have to place all of them on CubeSat to check performance against charged particles.

Solar panels in my case has to be combined to get 3.5-4 Volts – then I’ll use voltage regulator to get 2.5 volts – I tried different regulators – this one has low switch-off current and require additional tantalum capacitor. It is 100ma output current.

Then super capacitor main energy storage. Or:,0005,0010,0025,0050)C0-002R7pdf.pdf . I did not made final choice – second one is better for temperature range, (in a case of second capacitor needs to use 2.7 V voltage regulator same type). If temperature will be high then 85 – then capacitors still perform, but life-time shrinks.

Capacitors will be inside compartment – it is not a compartment truly speaking – epoxy/carbon shell with another epoxy as a sealant and thermal conductor. Voltage regulator will be inside compartment – Quiescent current 20mka will help to fight low temperature. Layer of gold (gold leafs) will protect form high temperature external. Amount of layer will be determined by experiments in vacuum chamber.

(b) each solar panel split to a groups with 4V - 100ma capacity (I did not find suitable voltage regulator with high current but this is advantage not disadvantage). Grid of voltage regulators connects each group to capacitors. Control of a grid performs by it monitors voltage on individual group and capacitors and switch-on/off desired regulator to charge capacitors evenly. PIC16f72x can perform that task autonomously with transferring performance results to a central storage unit (backup computer)

(c) - unknown / no tested part is a bust-up voltage – I did not choose/ tested any suitable – ( some of them does not has correct temperature range, some of them does not has correct output current, some does not have low shutdown current). For bust I need 3.3V 5V, and 12/9V. 3.3V can be 100ma (power for microprocessors), 5V -1 amp pick 1 sec, and for 12/9V needs to have 1.5amp (backup communication) pick 2 sec. For main communication module 1WT transmission – I do not have requirements yet.

(d) – grid boost-up regulators connects of capacitors from one side and then distributed to a power suckers – (1) backup/main storage/camera unit processor(first power level) (2) all another processors unit (second level of power consumption). (3) orientation system, (4) transmitters/receivers. Looks like distribution can work be controlled by same power control unit. If it will be not enough pins on PIC16F72x then may be I’ll put another power’s plant control unit – for controlling distribution – but I did not made decision yet. Gathering power control unit will have two powers – one based on six$file/CPC1822.pdf for power consumption 1mka, and then power plant charged at least one capacitor d it will switch to use power from that capacitor.

(e) all capacitors discharged at launch – simple shot cut resistor grid combined with remove-before-flight tag will do CubeSat requirements job. Six CPC1822N (for power plant) will be also shot cut by CubeSat switch. No power until deployment as it specs.

That all what I have today for a power plant.


Alex Dobrianski.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:30 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update. Moon as a platform for a business.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:29 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update. CubeSat as a testing stage for a Lunar mission.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:19 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update. Software.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:17 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update, Rover.

ON APRIL 05, 2012 02:16 PM Team Plan B, Year 2012. Update, Introduction.

ON FEBRUARY 06, 2012 10:09 PM Translation: Report for my friend Alex (Шура) :

Да - забыл сказать, вчера после того как все заснули, я вывел дрейф Гироскопа на ноль - одна из проблем ушла - трюк (кроме как обычно-программистской ошибки) был в следующей математике -

- считаю кватернион за Х секунд (эквивалентно усреднению)

- затем каждые Х секунд прикладываю обратный кватернион

В течении последующих каждых Х секунд значение плавает, а затем происходит прыжок в ноль. Причем значение функции кватерниона между квантовыми скачками - ТРЕХМЕРНАЯ ВОЛНА!!!

Если смотреть на косинус половинного угла – то волна должна по твоему обяснению – быть-зависеть от температуры. А если смотреть на вектор, то он колеблется, не сильно, но колебания! – это же прелэсть! - можно считать период – амплитуду и т.д и т.п.

Правильно будет вычислить период, запомнить квантерионую функцию от времени и вносить коррекцию в каждый репортируемый результат (не в то что меряется, а именно в репортируемый).

Теперь наконец-то понял, что физики понимают под квантовой теорией - существует некий объект - мерять его поведение можно отслеживая ортогональные проэкции, затем поведение объекта хотят эхтраполировать (интерполировать) линейной функцией (любимая линейная функция у физиков это ноль - как там - кирпич сохраняет состояние покоя или движется равномерно и прямолинейно если его никто не лапает руками и не сбрасывает с крыши) - а-н нет-с, не тут-то было -не получается линейная- тогда применят супер-пупер сложнейшую математику (обычно усреднение) и говорят- Во! смотрите – вот состояние покоя, а вот наш НОЛЬ. А ноль как из песни, - ”...разбег, толчек, полет и два двенадцать...” – ноль (объЭкт) обзывается новым словом – не простой ноль (объект), а квантообразный - вбухивают серьезные бабки на что-то ускоряющее, для изучения подробной природы скачков, – опять меряют – если корректирующая на ноль функция имеет определенную форму, период, амплитуду – клеют погоняло – элементарная частица элек-позит-нютро-мю-кю-боз-ОН, точно ОН (хотя тибетцы говорят ОМ) и просят лириков от физики (теоретиков) расписать все грамотно - получаем песенку - “From the maelstrom of knowledge - Into labyrinth of doubt - Frozen underground ocean - Melting, nuking on my mind”.

Нуля нет. Есть абстракцая нуля. Подаразумевается что ноль, это когда ничего не далают с объектом. Ноль это табличка "не хапайте руками". На самом деле кирпич живет сам по себе, ему все равно, и он самостоятельно выбирает хорошего человека. Такое утрированое понимание квантовой механики. Может я не прав - а я почти всегда не прав.

ON FEBRUARY 06, 2012 09:57 PM Report for my friend Alex (Shura):

. . Yep – forget to tell. Yesterday after everybody fell a sleep, I finally set Gyro’s drift to zero. One problem after two months solved. Trick was (except usual == program’s bug) was in mathematic –

- calculate rotation using quaternion for a period of X seconds (QCorr0);

- then any next X seconds apply to calculated rotation complimentary of original correction (QCorr0)

Interesting results - on any next X seconds rotation floats, and at the end of X seconds period rotation jumps to 0. Function of a quaternion from a time btw "quantum jumps" is a 3D WAVE.

If to look just at function cos_angle_devide_by2(t) – the wave (according your explanation) should be depend / related to a temperature. But if to look at rotation_vector(t) then there is a 3D wave, and it is possible to get characteristics like amplitude, period and etc. It is nice!

Truly speaking correct way will be to calculate period, store quaternion as a function(t) and apply periodic correction to measured results.

Now I understand, what in physics means “quantum theory”. For example: exist object, some object. It is possible to measure some parameters of it and parameters are projections to a Cartesian’s basis, then measured parameters needs to be extrapolate (interpolate) by linear function. Favorite by physics linear function is a zero function, i.e. the velocity of brick remains constant (bricks sits on the roof still) unless the brick is acted upon by somebody hands (force). But in some circumstances measured function is not sits still by makes periodic jumps like flee, then physics applies super-puper-complicated mathematics (usually this is a calculation of the average value) and object labeled as “object-with-quantum-nature”. To investigate “quantum” “jumps” in a function builds big-acccelera-colliders, and new database of measures creates. Shape of correction to zero functions(t) <= => quaternion(t) analyzed (period, amplitude, phase), and for distinguish patterns set of labels (electr-positr-prot-bos-on) was created (compare: ancient scientists inTibet used “Om” label). Last stage of learning curve – lyrics writers capable to understand all of that (theoretic scientists) writes books or songs - “From the maelstrom of knowledge - Into labyrinth of doubt - Frozen underground ocean - Melting, nuking on my mind”.

There is no ZERO function. Only abstract ZERO, like Picasso’s painting. Zero function is when we stated / labeled “Do not touch!” “Hands off from the object!”. In real world brick lives its own life, and choose by itself target’s head.

Such a childish explanation of a quantum theory by applying a quaternion’s mathematics. May be I am wrong – that’s what I am usually do.

ON DECEMBER 30, 2011 02:17 AM CubeSat, required precision, discussions.

ON DECEMBER 29, 2011 01:07 AM CubeSat, zero-point-zero-one-mm

ON DECEMBER 28, 2011 11:41 AM CubeSat, two plungers, one pin.

ON DECEMBER 27, 2011 02:11 PM CubeSat component's discussion.

ON DECEMBER 26, 2011 03:52 PM CubeSat manufacturing.

ON DECEMBER 26, 2011 05:27 AM CubeSat discussions (electronics)

ON DECEMBER 25, 2011 10:37 PM Forging CubeSat.

ON DECEMBER 14, 2011 11:56 AM Boris Chertok

14/12/2011, at age 100, passed away Boris Chertok. Our condolences to family. For space community Boris was un-replaceable. Boris Chertok’s books was inspiration for all development in Team Plan B.

На 100 году жизни скончался Борис Черток. Наши соболезнования семье. Вклад Бориса Чектока в космонавтику невозможно оценить обычнмым способом. Влияние его честных, точных, инженерых книг на космонавтику еще будет оценено будущими поколениями космического сообщества.

Team Plab B.

ON NOVEMBER 21, 2011 01:14 PM RFM

When you meet your physics teacher 30 years after the school, and old man told that he dose not remember how did you study physics in his class, it mean only one – needs to be careful with anything related to a physics. Specifically needs to RFM old lectures – gravitational potential is a scalar value, to get force from gravitational potential needs to get partial derivative. Particularly:

U (gravitational potential) = sum of Unk = fm/r (r0/r)**n Pnk(sinTetta) [Cnk*cos(k*lambda) + Snk*sin(k*lambda). Where Tetta is a latitude and lambda is longitude. Cnk/Snk is a constants from a model. fm= G*M, and r0 is equatorial radius. Partial derivative is (page 90 from Akesenov’s lectures

Then: Unk separates into 3 parts:

(part 1) Rn(1/r) = fm/r *(r0/r)**n

derivative => Rn(1/r)' = (n+1) * fm * r0**n * (1/r)**n = (n+1) * fm * (r0/r)**n)

on a page 12 is (it is kind of hard to write formulas in C code)

Pnk(sinTetta) = (1-sinTetta**2) ** (k/2) * dk (Pn(sinTetta))/ d(sinTetta)**k

= cosTetta **k * dK(Pn(sinTetta))/ d(sinTtta)**k

now cosTetta**k separated from Pnk(sinTetta) to get clear part 2 and CosTetta**k will end up at part 3.

(part 2) Znk(z/r) = dK(Pn(sinTetta)/ d(sinTetta)**k =

= Pnk’[n][k]

Derivative => Znk(z/r)' = Pnk’[n][k+1]

also in (part 2) for K == 0 is:

Zn0 = Pn(sinTetta)

Finally cosTetta goes to a last part:

(part 3) Qnk(x/r,y/r) = cosTetta**k * [Cnk*cos(k*lambda) + Snk * sin(k*lambda)]

= [Cnk*cosTetta**k * cos(k*lambda) + Snk * cosTetta**k * sin(k*lambda)]

= [Cnk* Xk + Snk*Yk] and

Xk = (cosTetta)**k * cos(k*Lambda) Yk = (costetta)**k * sin(k*Lambda)

or recurcevly:

X0 =1, Y0 = 0

X1 = cosTeatta * Cos(Lambda) = x/r; Y1 = cosTetta * sin(Lambda) = y/r

X[k+1] = Xk * x/r - Yk* y/r Y[k+1] = Yk* x/r + Xk * y/r

D(Unk)/D(x) = d(Rn) / d(1/r) * D(1/r)/D(x) * Znk * Qnk + Rn * d(Znk)/d(z/r) * D(z/r)/D(x) * Qnk + Rn * Znk * [D(Qnk)/D(x/r) * D(x/r)/D(x) + D(Qnk)/D(y/r)*D(y/r)/D(x)]

D(Unk)/D(y) = d(Rn) / d(1/r) * D(1/r)/D(y) * Znk * Qnk + Rn * d(Znk)/d(z/r) * D(z/r)/D(y) * Qnk + Rn * Znk * [D(Qnk)/D(x/r) * D(x/r)/D(y) + D(Qnk)/D(y/r)*D(y/r)/D(y)]

D(Unk)/D(z) = d(Rn) / d(1/r) * D(1/r)/D(z) * Znk * Qnk + Rn * d(Znk)/d(z/r) * D(z/r)/D(z) * Qnk + Rn * Znk * [D(Qnk)/D(x/r) * D(x/r)/D(z) + D(Qnk)/D(y/r)*D(y/r)/D(z)]

All Rnk, Qnk and it’s derivatives calculates recursively, on page 91-92 presents formulas to get partial derivatives for D(1/r)/D(x) and etc. At the end needs to move out of brackets for each partial derivative values fm * x/r**3, fm * y/r**3, fm*z/r**3. And explanation of a stupidity of Alex Dobrianski shines up – in a C code J2 constant really bigger 10 times for 75 degree(just coincident normally it bigger 3 times), in Fx,Fy presents sin(co-latitude), in Fz presents cos(latitude)**2 / sin(latitude), and error drops from 30km to 685m. Needs to read (couple of times) manual (lectures) does not matter how many pages in it.

ON NOVEMBER 15, 2011 12:53 PM J2 coefficient. Earth is flat. Isn’t it?

For trajectory simulation on low earth orbit was implemented 3 different groups of functions in source code. At first (for Earth’s simulation as a dot mass) kepler’s elements of a satellite (eccentricity, inclination, longitude of ascending node, argument of perihelion, and mean anomaly) converted to position and velocity, then plugged to a simulation. To confirm that conversion and simulation is “OK” was ported (as a second group) source code from (functions for keplers reverse conversion from position and velocity to a keplers elements). After some sign adjustments was confirmed that dot mass simulation is correct == after one orbit (or 1 day flight) satellite’s Keplers elements has had an error lower then 1.E-10. Then comes third group – old fortran source code from “SPACETRACK REPORT NO 3” ( ) function for SGP4 gives (looks like) gives better precision than SGP. Then model was switched from dot mass to a something better suitable like GEM-T3 or JGM3. Basically this model deals with “flatness” of the earth (or differently saying orange like model of earth, or “pear” shape-like earth model). All those models suppose to allow to calculate value a gravitation potential assuming that earth is not a perfect sphere. Recursive function Pn(cosTtetta) does not take much time to implement. Was confirmed that coefficient J2=1082.6360229830E-6 has biggest impact. Because in first lines of a report was stated: “The NORAD element sets are “mean" values obtained by removing periodic variations in a particular way. In order to obtain good predictions, these periodic variations must be reconstructed (by the prediction model) in exactly the same way they were removed by NORAD.” This statement was confirmed by analyzing source code – mean motion and semimajor axis (eccentricity) was readjusted before use. Also by reverse conversion was confirmed that period/mean-motion of the orbit is different from “mean” mean motion (terminology of a report), and different from “mean motion”, and difference btw all 3 values is 4 seconds each. To avoid such errors was decided to use position and velocity from SPG4 model and compare that data with corresponded values from a model with J2-J8 and Sxx + Cxx coefficients to simulate gravity. Result was discouraging. Error was in 50km after one orbit. Was made an attempt to minimize difference. It was found that best match (17km in position and 8m in velocity) was when instead of cos(co-latitude) was used cos(latitude) – which is a nonsense - it shows that earth has more flatness on equator instead on a poles. Then it was manual attempt to match SPG4 data by adjusting J2 coefficient (commented out code in function IteraSat in – was found that J2 was to be increased in some moments 10 times. Was done attempted to adjust initial velocity and position from SGP4 model to match result after one orbit simulation – this also did not bring suitable match. To be continue. For sure bug in a model, but without finding it will be totally impossible to do navigation to flight to the moon.

ON NOVEMBER 03, 2011 02:35 PM Report to my friend Shura (Alex). (Translation as it was promised)

Ok Alex - this is a situation – the magnetometer – yesterday (all my troubles seemed so far away…) got from it accuracy 0.3 degree with capability to increase accuracy to any desired precision (first luck in last month). For sure in the magnetometer exists error related to a different measurements on different axis, but this error can be corrected by calibration, on big paper sheet I just marked angles – taped magnetometer to a wooden cube (yes, I am still playing with a wooden cubes – the are not magnetic) with long aluminum ruler, do measurement on each axis and corrections hammered directly into a (flash memory) table.

Magnetometer allowed to confirm (surprise!) latitude of aVancouver– yesterday on my uneven table 18.1 degrees matched perfectly (angle btw horizon and direction of a magnetic field’s vector).

Model of a (earth) magnetic field is simple – some cos() – sin() functions and somewhere (already forget where – in saved spreadsheet) something divided in half. Loaded yesterday (year 1977) FORTRAN’s programs by Nikolai Tzigankov. He made nice model of Earth magnetic field including influence of a solar wind on far distances from the earth. Needs to convert code to C, and adapt it to my simulator/tra-calculator. This for sure will take a time (no less a week), conversion takes no longer then hour(s), but needs to be careful with default names of integer/float variables, and mostly time spend on each line verification.

About “gyro navigation device” == “my shame” == “not finished” – one week ago understood what needs to do (or may be just foolish-ing myself that understood) – after magnetometer calibrations and implementing (magnetic) model plan-b for software == 2 second on a orbit == 16 km == vector of a magnetic field can change 0.3 degree – the same error will be in the magnetometer – for one second confirmed error is 0.3 (for 2 seconds it will be 0.15-0.2 degree ), then gyro’s readings corrected by temperature calibration, that will give: (a) gyro angles, (b) magnetometers angles, (c) difference in angles by gyro, (d) difference in angles by magnetometer. (a) + (b) flying independently against each other, but if (d) is less 0.3 on all axis then (c) is a correction’s value. On my microprocessor with 500 bytes can be perfectly implemented (c) and (d) without losing single bit – 2000 readings == 32K, dividing (like in a school) by logarithms and arctan(sqrt()) from Bradis table (school’s technology proved faster 100 times). Correction on magnetometer axis’s readings is in flash table too. I think it can be fit into 1MB (1.20$). if (not) then 1.81$ (4MB) will be suitable;

Difference in gyro implementation for rover – instead of a magnetometer it will be accelerometer – all software is the same.

Difference in gyro implementation for a ground station == zero (it is possible to use magnetometer + gyro + accelerometer to demonstrate effective trick == detection of earth rotation with a device totally not capable to so – trick will be nice but it is extra == does not worth spend time on it).

I thought that I was loosing time (and time is not my friend for today), but after careful examination Boris Chertok’s book I found that story about Luna9 has had similar problems/questions – 1 second (1/60 degree) error == 200km error on the moon, gyro, not enough power for a gyro, burned devices at tests, power station does not work, absence of telemetry out of a ground stations, orientation using sun-earth-moon, gyro does not get enough time to reach precision because of a power limitation, earth’s image was on a corner of sensor, failed deadlines, lost money and etc. One of a sample “bug” reported by Boris – after lost probe was found that one department (hundreds of people assigned to do trajectory calculation) understood “clockwise” direction totally opposite the understanding by another department. Only 14th attempt was successful.

ON OCTOBER 25, 2011 12:12 PM Report for my friend Shura. (With promises to translate to English later).

Саня, докладаю - ситуевина значит такая – магнитометр == позавчера - получил от него наконецто точность в 0.3 градуса - могу теперь эту точность повышать практически до бесконечного нуля - в магнитометре конечно присутствует ошибка связанная с неравномерностью замера силы магнитного поля (полля!) по осям – но эту ошибку приготовился исправлять с помощью калибровки - на листе бумаги нарисовал углы - прискотчил прибор к детскому деревянному кубику с люминевой линейкой, замеряю по трем осям и прямиком в таблицу.

Магнитометр позволил определить широту Ванкувера по наклону магнитного поля - вчера для моего колченогого стола 18.1 градус совпали прекрасно.

Модель магнитного поля простая - синус - косинус и уж непомню где, но пополам . Загрузил вчера 1977 года фортрановские программы Николая Циганкова - он сделал достаточно точную модель магнитного поля земли - включая солнечный ветер на больших расстояниях от земли. Нужно будет переводить код в Си для моделирования - займет конечно временя - не меньше недели.

По поводу гироскопа - незакончил - неделю назад понял что нужно делать (или думаю что понял)- после проверок точности магнитометра буду с софтвером так - 2 секунды полета == 16 км - за две секунды магнитное поле уйдет на 0.3 градуса - та же точность будет у магнитометра - за одну секунду 0.3, (за две будет гдето 0.15-0.2) - т.е. порог замера. Затем гироскоп считывает по уже существующей температурной калибровке и получаю- (а) гироскоповские углы (бэ) магнетометоровские углы (цэ) гиро за 2 секунды (дэ) магнитометр за две сукунды - (а) и (бэ) плывут друг от друга как труба им на душу положит. Но если магнитометр покажет (дэ) меньше 0.3 по всем осям - значит (це) это ошибка - которую и принимаем в какчестве корректировки. На своем микрочипе в 500 байов памяти прекрасно могу сделать (цэ) и (дэ) плавющими без потери точности -2000 замеров == всего лишь 32К - деление как в школе по логарифмам - арктангенс из квадратного корня по таблице брадиса (разов 100 быстрее) - коррекция осей магнитометра в ней же - даже думаю в доллар 20 умесчюсь (1МБ), если нет - то доллар 81 пойдет (4МБ). Может придется делать температурную калибровку гироскопа по каждой оси отдельно (перпендикулярно земле).

Разница в гироскопе для луного трактора - вместо магнитометра беру акселерометр и весь софтвер тот же.

Разница в гироскопе для наземной станции – никакой (моожно конечно испоользовать магнитометр для эффектного фокуса – демонстрировать вращение земли на обрудовании неспособном такое вращение детектировать – но это лишнее).

Думал что теряю вермя - затем заглянул в книгу Бориса Чертока – все теже мои проблемы - гироскоп - его питание – спалили прибор при тестирвании - отсутствие телеметрии вне наземной станции - ориентировка по солнцу земле луне - гироскопу дали недостаточно времени на раскрутку, земля попала в край картинки. С четырнадцатого раза только удалось все правильно сделать.

ON OCTOBER 17, 2011 12:47 PM PLAN (Path of Learning Almost Non-predictable).

Ok – this is a deal – lets assumes – (a) power plant on satellite has 6 surface – each 2 of it can be assumed parallel, looking in opposite direction with solar panel attached, that makes 3 groups by 2, each group orthogonal each other; (b) gyro precession is 1 degree per 4 minutes; (c) magnetometer gives readings (absolute) of a magnetic field with precession 2 degree. First step will be to stabilize satellite (eliminate rotation) to a level 0.5 degree per hour. It can be done by monitoring readings from a solar panels and do correction by rotating stepper motors. Then after 4-5 hours when error is less then 0.5 degree (per hour) magnetometer readings will be prerecorded during two orbits. This gives 2x3x75x75x2 ~ less 100K of data. Data analyzed for min and max of derivative and chunks of data with max and min values can be transferred by backup communication (not require orientation of a craft) to earth control center (~10K of data). On the ground center simulation program of a magnetic field on a low earth orbit will match (by brutal computer run) observed readings with approximated Keplers elements. Basically it will try all possible Keplers elements and find best match for observation reading. When Kepler’s found then for a time equal ½ hour before next communication session can be generated magnetic fields readings which craft has to follow for a proper orientation in a time of beginning of the session. When session will starts, gyro with precession 1 degree per 4 minutes (session time) can orient satellite to perform session. Ground station antenna will use the same logic for orientation with assumption that earth rotates 360 per 24 hours, coordinates and direction to a north magnetic pole can be reliably verified. The picture taken by camera fixed to the craft frame using the same method of orientation (30 minutes of prior picture session) can confirm precision of a method. The same technique will be used to orient craft for a main impulse on a way to the moon, in this case max 160 minutes of predicted magnetic field values needs to be downloaded. More complicated procedure on a way to the moon (travel time 7-9 days) for correction impulses – lets assume the orientation of a magnetic field in each point of trajectory will be stable during at least 1 hour. Direction to the moon and earth can be preloaded, then using gyro it is possible to orient craft’s camera (fixed to a frame) to estimated direction to centers of the earth and the moon. Picture can be taken and gyro will return craft back to the orientation before picture session with precision 0.25 degree (basically this mean picture has to be taken in a intervals of 1 minutes). Then magnetometer’s readings can be used to stabilized previous (before session) direction. Solar plant will give another vector for orientation to the sun. Two picture can be processed on board to get direction to the center of the earth and the moon. And calculated earth’s direction can be used for communication session. On correction impulse it has to confirm (by picture) direction to the earth, the moon, the orientation of a magnetic field and using gyro (1 min) before impulse . . . see more on

ON OCTOBER 11, 2011 03:01 PM Fiasco with Gyro. Hope with magnetic sensor. Power Plant.

Testing gyro was calibrated for range of temperatures, calibrating values 64K of 3x16-bit words was stored in memory. Gyro has fixed in stable position with X axe oriented to a North Star, Y to the West and Z orthogonal to X-Y forward to the Earth’s rotation axe. Drift of a zero was in a range of 5 degree per 256sec (4 minutes). Sensor was forced to max possible sensitivity (undocumented future in ITG-3200, but it gives 1/115=0.009 degree per sec – it still require 10 better sensitivity to detect earth rotation). Sensor set to 296 samples per sec (microprocessor is slow – needs to be at least 32MHz). Zero drift was random (range from 0.01 – 5.0 degree per 4 minutes) and not depend of a derivative of a temperature. Drift was related to an orientation of a gyro, and on a previous gyro’s readings (possible that factory calibration gives drift).

Such drift is totally not acceptable for navigation, needs to eliminate error first. On the Earth or on the Moon it is possible to do this by reading accelerometer and magnetic sensor orientation. Field of gravity is stable on the Earth and the Moon, and magneto sensor readings on the Earth are stable too (for sure to some extend). Reading from accelerometer gives absolute reading. Flying average from accelerometer can give good indication of an absence or existence of rotation and can allow to exterminate gyro’s zero drift.

Normally this is done by Kalman filter, it assuming that absolute direction is for a gravity field and based on that assumption correction to gyro’s readings (speed of a rotation) can be done. Kalman filter works good when noisy measurements done for predictable object. It is nice and well known approach, source code available for such filters including combination of 3-x accelerometer and 3-x magneto sensor. But such approach is not working on the low Earth orbit. Hope is for a magnetic sensors – first needs to calculate flying average of a 3D magnetic field orientation. If flying average during 2 sec (500 samples) is not in moving than current drift of a gyro assumed as a zero.

Then time measured for a slowest changes (derivative of a orientation) gives point on a orbit when satellite crossed equator. Two times btw crossing the equator can give Keplers elements of a orbit. Checking point will be apogee and perigee – direction of a magnetic field at those two points must achieve maximum of a derivative of a direction of a magnetic field. Current position of a magnetic poles will give offset for a final ... see more on ...

Power plant.

Solar panels combined in 4 groups. 4 high capacitance capacitors can be charged by any solar panel’s groups . To control such process require 16 pins for a control. Then 4 charged capacitors can give power to 4 main users of a power – (a) backup microprocessor, main electronic including main computer; (b) backup communication; (c) main communication amplifiers; (d) orientation stepper motors/ 2.4GHz antenna deployment. This power distribution require another 16 pins. Power source for main communication amplifier controls by pins on a STM_BT microprocessor. Power source for stepper motors controls by STM_SM microprocessor. Power source for a main electronics controls by STM_MEM microprocessor.

Assumed 3 different mode of power operation.

- Initially first capacitor gives power to STM_MEM module. When it powered up it can monitor state of any 4 capacitors and switch itself power source to any of it. At this point all onboard electronics and users are switched off.

- Then at a time when it is enough power accumulated by power plant STM_MEM can go to second mode - powered backup communication module, gyro module, camera module, stepper motors/orientation module, main communication module. Each of the modules on a request from command stream from STM_MEM can initiate ... See more on ... and

ON SEPTEMBER 30, 2011 11:13 AM Boring job of a software engineer. Gyro. Software. Endless calibrations.

ON SEPTEMBER 29, 2011 02:02 PM Boring. Gyro. (Part one. Electronics, and calibration)

ON SEPTEMBER 23, 2011 11:32 AM Speech? – As it is.

ON SEPTEMBER 19, 2011 05:29 PM Avionics – Communication protocol, memory storage, Camera, Gyro, Stepper motors.

Supporting commands for transport layer reduced to 3:

1) '~' serial communication loop is functional.

2) '=XCI' retransmit data

3) ‘<’'<'I2Caddr'>''<'data'>'[‘>’'<'bytes-to-read'>'@]

For unit allocated 3 queue – one for serial input, another for I2C input, and third for output (output can be serial or I2C, but output queue is only one). Command “=XCI” force input from serial to be transmitted to unit ‘X’ with command ‘C’ over I2C line. Command “=XCc” force input from I2C to be transmitted over serial output to unit ‘X’ with command ‘C’. CMD ‘C’ can be set as ‘ ‘ (space) this will skip inserting command into a retransmission. The same correct for a ‘X’ unit address for retransmission – setting ‘ ‘ (space) will force retransmit but without sending unit address. This is convenient to retransmit data from memory storage over I2C to any unit. When received command ‘<’'<'I2Caddr'>''<'data'>'[‘>’'<'bytes-to-read'>'@ ] this force retransmit data over I2C to device with I2Caddr. Placing ‘>’ at the end of the command with force I2C set Stop-Start condition and read response data from I2C device.

For command/stream handling used 3 callback functions. Call back Function called in a serial->I2C (or I2C->serial) retransmit state each time before processing bytes from input queues. Return code allows specify end conditions for retransmission.

Call Back Main calls each time in a loop of processing both input queues. I2C queue has priority over serial. Clock based on 8Mhz internal oscillator and it gives around 30 interrupts per second, seconds accuracy depend only on a stability of a internal oscillator. 29 counts of a 1/30 of a second different from last count – last count adjusted to properly set seconds or termal conditions. For synchronization unit uses MCR. Second timer can be used for setting any wait events.

Design considerations:

1.Each unit can accept command from each unit. Each command can produce next commands for any unit. Functionality of each unit independent from other unit. Stream of a commands traveling over serial and I2C supports functionality of a vehicle and craft. Functionality of each unit for craft should be used for vehicle.

2.Protocol layers separated into . . .

See more on

ON SEPTEMBER 13, 2011 10:52 AM Trajectory calculations. Keplers elements. Pt 1.

ON SEPTEMBER 06, 2011 06:04 PM Communication protocol nightmares

Communication protocol changes. Unit must be capable to support serial and I2C multi-master protocol in different configuration. Unit interfacing “serial device” needs to relay received and transmitted data from “serial device” to another unit via I2C. Units interfacing “I2C devices” needs to relay received / transmitted data via serial. All serial units linked each other into a ring. Serial out of each unit connects to serial in of a next unit. Propagation delay (in transfer data from unit N to unit K will depend on an amount of units btw N and K. Serial communication speed - 56K/s, I2C around 200-300Kbit/s. Un-standard speed for serial can be set to 100Kbit/s, but temperature instability can reduce speed back to 56-32k. Each unit can change speed of communication. On master reset serial speed is 9600. Each unit on “power-on” transfer over serial loop sends greetings message. Traveling over the loop this message ended up at originated unit and loops functionality verified. Main processor unit can monitor traffic and detect all functional units. The same technique of traffic monitoring can be useful to avoid re-transition the same data. I.e. “Camera unit” send data to a “memory” unit at the same time main processor grab data for IKV processing and/or “24Ghz communication” unit can relay packages from “Camera unit” to “memory” with retransmitting same packages to ground station. More scary etc. on

ON SEPTEMBER 01, 2011 03:50 PM 2.4GHz communication

Antenna 2.4Ghz – for ground station helical antenna design and manufacturing – it will be better to print such antenna than make it by hands – 3D printing material suitable is Nylon 12. Two 3D printing facilities : Ponoko: and Shapeways: . After printing all what will be left - to connect flat reflector made from PCB board, and 0.3 dia wire. For mockup of a testing antenna on CubeSat (that one has to be made by hands) 3d model: or

2.4Ghz band is actually a junk band but according FCC (( ) and in Canada$FILE/rss210-issue7.pdf it is possible without license to use 4wt (Canada) and in 1wt (USA) transmitters (assuming BlueTooth as a core), without limitation on antennas. For local noise cancellation microchip is: According spec >20dB noise cancellation possible. Manually (which is proved and possible) for ground station can be achievable 50dB noise (junk) suppression.

Also was discussed the same technique for suppress noise on a transmitter – transmitter antenna on satellite oriented to the point on the earth at the same time noise helical antenna looks backward 180 degree. Second (noise) antenna needs to be with receiving pattern covering the same sky area as a ground antenna (this depend on a orbit, otherwise needs mechanical adjustment). Mixing delayed (61.3mm) noise on 2.4Ghz from a particular place on a sky with a transmitting signal, then subtracting same noise on receiver can give ~50+20=70 dB which will be good as it sounds. Complications: see more on:

ON AUGUST 23, 2011 10:18 AM Composite Spring part 2

ON AUGUST 23, 2011 10:17 AM Composite Spring part 1

ON AUGUST 17, 2011 11:31 AM Molds, epoxy, ant etc. (and video part 2)

ON AUGUST 17, 2011 11:31 AM Molds, epoxy, ant etc. (and video part 1)

ON AUGUST 17, 2011 11:29 AM Molds, epoxy, ant etc

All molds were received – now it is possible to make different thickness’s springs: 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 mm. Also was proved – amount of carbon fiber / threads inside the mold 1.5mm – 4 layers of carbon fiber , 3 layers and just threads (no fabric) gives a different linear elasticity (easy to measure – on a electronic scale – amount of a weight require to connect sides of a spiral). Also was discovered a mistake (may be not) – if to place the assembled mold into a vacuum chamber, then excessive air pockets inside mold squeeze out epoxy from the mold. From one point it is not looking good – a cross section of a spring is not regular – but spring become lighter 25%, epoxy stays just on carbon fiber, and coefficient elasticity is bigger. For future use – placing in a vacuum chamber has to be done before closing the mold (for nice looking springs), or in assembly (for saving weight and increase elasticity). Also was found a way to speed up process (up to 5 times) and make spring more controllable. The carbon fiber has to be in a braid (or a plait) – different technique can be used to control amount of fiber and physical dimensions (5 x 1.5 x 500 mm). Also was proved an easy way to control temperature for epoxy’s curing – the induction stove from Wal-Mart + connecting sequentially to a thermo element variable (10-100kOm) resistor and the temperature inside the chamber wrapped by aluminum foil will stays with 1 centigrade range. See more on

ON AUGUST 15, 2011 12:41 PM Composits parts

Small panic about 526N epoxy – by all parameters it is acceptable (-78C +300C tolerance, flexibility, outgassing, and etc.), but it is not in it Material Alphabetical Listing. This (not in list) may be problematic for any composites used in vehicle and craft.Epoxies 517, 556, 568 present in a section B list but it is not suitable. After contacting manufacturer it was confirmed that 526N actually was tested around 20 years ago for outgassing study and Total Mass Loss (TML) at 125C is 0.49 (less then 1%) and Collective Volatile Condensable (CVCM at 25C) Materials is (0.00) with curing conditions 2H (93C) and 16H (204C). Epoxy is good, looks like it will be require re run ASTM E-595. Anyway satellite (including vehicle) was to pass vibration tests according launch vehicle profile and thermal-vacuum bakeouts to ensure level of outgassing at minimum vacuum 5x10-4 Torr. Manufacturing of composites was to be documented. See more on

ON AUGUST 08, 2011 05:29 PM Systems from a craft to be tested on orbital flight.

Orientation system will include 3 stepper motors. For a test on 1kg total mass it will be require motors with bearing. Suitable weight for each 30 g. And lubrication can be changed to molybdenum. Gyro sensor readings should be compared with targeting XYZ values. Onboard main computer has to be adaptable to different type of motors, (a) different inertia momentum, (b) delays of control to avoid oscillation. Dynamic parameters of a system has to be calculated (not predetermined) using same gyro-sensor. Placement of 3 stepper motors may be not in a center of mass – as a result to support orientation along any of 3 axes, system should calculate parameters by itself. On ground tests for a system can be done only for one axe, and in plane intersect center of mass. In worth case scenario it will require to download new binary for orientation system (effectively for a main onboard computer). See more on

ON AUGUST 02, 2011 11:43 AM Systems from a craft can not be tested on a ground but in orbital flight.

Check - which systems from a craft can not be tested on a ground but in orbital flight. The critical one (a) GPS data collection from raw data ID 30, (b) orientation system (on a ground it can be only a simulation), (c) communication system with 2.4 GHz, (d) orientation system with 3 axes (e) astro-navigation system (calculation direction to the center of Earth, and star matching system). (f) backup communication. GPS any way needs to be developed for correct main impulses direction. Electronics can be done in 2 weeks, and software will be major development. First it will transfer ID30 satellites reading using backup communication. Then by formula on a ground calculates Keplers elements and transfer orbit params back using backup system. Weight for a sensor 25 g. For ground tests can be used the same TRA app with 5 GPS satellites Keplers element and simulation of a ID30 data. When formulas finalized and errors estimated the same source code can be inserted into a flight main computer. No backup calculations of Keplers elements in microcontrollers. ..... See more on:

ON JULY 25, 2011 05:58 PM Laser Distance Finder

During descent, to ignite brake engine at 2800 m/s requires real time distance measurement to Moons’ surface. We think radar or laser can be used. Weight for radar is heavier of the two concepts, around 2-3 kg, which is too large for our small landing vehicle design. Alternative approach is a Laser Distance Finder (LDF). In this case weight will include only two optical lenses, electronic equipment and mounting, significant saving in total mass of a probe. Off-shelf laser range finders can work on maximum distance for a couple kilometres. Requirements – measure distances from 30 km to 5km, reflection from a lunar dust, 0.5W laser. Additionally (a) if it possible the same system can be used to transfer data by laser beam and (b) be used to measure distance to reflectors on a moon on early approach stage. See more on

ON JULY 20, 2011 12:38 PM Soldering Laser Range Prototype part 2

Alex soldering Laser Range Prototype (medium stages)

ON JULY 18, 2011 12:04 PM Soldering Laser Range Prototype part 1

Alex soldering laser range prototype part 1.

ON JULY 04, 2011 09:06 AM Breadboard Prototype

This video was to be posted for the month of June. Technical difficulties aside the video shows Alex test out the laser range calculator.

ON JUNE 30, 2011 12:58 PM Schema draft 2

This video shows Alex and I go a little further in depth about the probe's range calculation schema

ON JUNE 28, 2011 05:50 PM Draft for range calculation

Attached is the video where Alex and I discuss the task of calculating the range between the lunar surface and our probe.

ON JUNE 02, 2011 11:51 AM Frame design.

Two aluminum tubes with two aluminum plates, holding tubes in parallel each other. Four stepper motors – two for wheels and two for antenna and camera stands. Motors for a camera stand and antenna was to be with gears with 1.x 3.5 ratio. Gears made from ceramic grinding tools. On a frame mounted an aluminum mirror allowing HD camera’s observation in holding position. On tubes mounted flexible solar panels with angles 45 degree to the center line, solar panels both sides orientation. Aluminum frame and plates will be warped for enforcement with one or two layers for a carbon fiber. This will create “composite’ structure – soft aluminum inside and carbon fiber outside. For mockup all parts except aluminum tubes ordered over Problems: 1. Needs to find flexible solar panels with good performance in temperature range and under of UV and high charged particle’s conditions. Current power capabilities are around 6-8 W total, and in real life it will be around 2.5-3 W. Which is not acceptable at all. 2. Orientation for aluminum mirror. 3. What a minimum distance from solar panel to antenna’s stand rotation axe? (To avoid interference with communication). 4. Protection for a two wheel’s stepper motors. Originally wheel’s springs will give protection at impact, but looks like it will require some carbon’s bees’-comb-like structure for additional protection. 5. Manufacture molds for top layer of carbon fibber (for tubes and plate) with bees’-comb-like pattern. 6. Protection for a gear needs to be decided. 7. Holder for solar panels does not look good.

ON MAY 30, 2011 05:15 PM Update on vehicle design.

Design page will be updated to reflect current changes on recent drawing in step by step vehicle design. Wheels. Each wheel has 16 springs made from ether steel or carbon fiber. For steel’s it is easy to cut parts from specific thickness steel’s sheet and a coefficient for a Hooke’s formula can be easily calculated, confirmed and controlled. More complicated process is for a carbon fiber – all controllable parameters are: amount of layers (one, two, or three layers of a carbon fabric), different types of fabrics, and amount of epoxy (solo depends on a mold). The mold manufacturing can be complicated. It was chosen simple approach - first made 3D model and manufacture it at Ponoko Personal Factory can produce parts from a plastic which is not suitable for real springs, but plastic model can be used in mold’s manufacturing. Then depend on a results (carbon fiber’s molding or steel springs cutting) can be made the decision: what is better. Arbitration are usual - the weight of a wheel, and performance at different temperature. Absence of a gear will definitely reduce weight, and springs flexibility can accumulate energy to get momentum enough to travel over obstacles and craters. Coefficient in Hooke’s formula and precision delivery of a momentum by stepper motors can pump energy (using resonance frequency) into a spring system and a precision release (of that energy) will give jump’s type of movement for a vehicle. This is similar to a case (if somebody remember from past) when a car was stuck with one wheel at road’s hole, small oscillation (as back and forward push) can release car from road trap. From another hand (to save a time) plastic parts can be used in vehicle software development, some flexibility plastic already has and braking plastic part can be indication of a proper resonance frequency achieved. Wona stated that this type of wheel is totally useless without controllable software. Problems: 1. How to make a mold for carbon fiber? Probable answer on that question – to order mold from a different type of ceramic/plastic. 2. How to control stiffness/elasticity for carbon fiber’s springs? Probable answer – to make 3 different (1, 2, or 3 layers of carbon springs) and use combination of different springs. 3. How to calculate resonance frequency of a wheel in assembly? Probable answer – software has to be adaptable to different parameters/performance of springs. 4. Does it require carbon fiver clothe wrap to make bigger surface contact? Answer for this question is actually: Yes Blender files available. SW file coming soon.

ON MAY 20, 2011 10:41 AM Thermal tests -78C. Part 2.

ON MAY 12, 2011 12:48 PM Thermal tests. Part one. -78C.

ON APRIL 29, 2011 01:30 PM Ceramic gear design and manufacturing.

ON APRIL 19, 2011 04:03 PM Photo Album. Thermal tests -78C. All tests passed as expected.

ON APRIL 18, 2011 02:47 PM Latitude and longitude

Implemented forward and backward conversion of (X, Y, Z) coordinates to latitude and longitude on the Moon surface. Added another optimization method: “target practice to a point on the Moon surface”. Now it is possible to set target latitude and longitude on the Moon and try to reach it by (a) adjusting time of a main impulse engine firing, (b) adjusting correction impulse (total 150gr propellant) firing angle. Results are – adjusting (a) – gives the error 300km, combination (a) and (b) gives error 600m. What is bad in all this trajectories - landing happened 3 days before sunrise on the moon’s surface. What a . . . setback! That trajectories require for the vehicle to be able to survive 3 earth-days-1/4-moon-night? see more on:

ON APRIL 15, 2011 03:00 PM Trajectory study

. . . that mean no need to do adjustments for an Earth’s inclination to the ecliptic. Everything was ready to add engine's impulses to a simulation. Impulses was imported into TRA application as a data from plot on engine’s firing tests . . . For a convenience it is possible to use parameter PropCoeff to adjust a total impulse. For sure real test’s data of a real engine should be use – but for an approximation it is ok for now. Also that PropCoeff can be used to simulate a real engine firing – satellite can be rotated and vector thrust can be controlled by a rotation, in that case an impulse can be less that 100% - and PropCoeff with a corresponded value will be a good approximation for that firing. The first study for a flight trajectory was done – it uses Kepler’s elements for imaginary satellite and engine from In all test’s runs was used the direction opposite of a vector velocity of the satellite. Debug mode of a compiler found to be useful for checking results. First tests targeted to find a firing time on an orbit to achieve a maximum possible apogee. TRA were set to try all points (engine’s firing time) with interval of 1 sec. It was found that the Sun’s position can do impact on the orbit. Then was confirmed that (approximately) a same mean anomaly (place on an orbit) gives a similar apogee (difference depends on rotation of the Earth around the Sun). Then were adjusted scale coefficient (PropCoeff 1.0~3.0) to see how it can impact the orbit. Next in test’s runs were discovered that proper firing of an engine can give a difference as a twice high apogee (i.e. 135,000 km compare to 70,000km), possibility that this is just is a bug in TRA application is not ruled out. Then it was found that experiments better to be done with satellite’s total weight variation then with impulse variation. At one test satellite actually reached one of Lagrange points. This case was investigated and it was found that actually difference in going to a Lagrange point or staying on high apogee Earth orbit is 0.02kg (20 grams) at total satellite weight. Was found proportion of an engine weight (~80kg), PropCoeff (3.0 == 51kg of a solid rocket propellant) to achieve distance 390,000 km (which is not good!). When experiments was finished (it was basically done to understand ballistics of a satellite orbiting the Earth) was made an attempt to see how to flyby the Moon. Was used previous step’s mean anomaly (position on an orbit) to achieve minimum distance to the Moon on apogee (may be apogee is not a good point?). As it was expected it shows that it will require some time (up to 30 days == one revolution of the Moon around the Earth) to achieve an optimized impulse. (see more on

ON APRIL 07, 2011 11:54 AM Discussions about already abandoned second prototype vehicle’s design.

See more on

ON APRIL 01, 2011 09:53 PM Update on trajectory calulations:

Kepler elements was processed to get position on velocities of a satellite in steps: First step - to use longitude of ascending node (where the orbit passes upward through the reference plane), calculated clockwise or counterclockwise the direction of the ellipse. Second step – calculated the speed position (X0,Y0,0) and speed (VN,VR) on mean anomaly. Third step – calculate (VX0, VY0,0) based on direction (clockwise, counterclockwise see Pic1 from previous post). At that moment all calculation were done in orbital plane, coordinate Z assumed equal to 0. Fourth step - adjust argument of perihelion angle from intersection line of orbital plane and reference plane to perihelion direction (lower point on orbit). See pic2. Fifth step (X1,Y1,Z1) (VX1,VX2,Z1) values X1, VX1 intact from previous step - use inclination of an orbit’s plane to reference plane (inclination for satellite to the Earth equator – in Tra.cpp it has to be added Incl +

ON MARCH 27, 2011 10:51 AM vehicle development

Sketches for 2 wheels design and two type of movements were made. Next step is to create drawing. Considered making composite structures. Parts for carbon fibre production will be done in two steps – manufacturing at Ponoco plastic component, and testing, then using same component to make forming using modeling ceramic. Aluminum parts will be manufactured as it was done previously.

ON MARCH 15, 2011 02:02 PM Trajectory Calculation Issues

Simulation position and velocity of Sun, Earth, and Moon bodies brings errors. An attempt was done to use NASA’s data – some of DEXXX files are available. Minor errors were fixed in the C version of the code (convert.c) done by David Hoffman from a NASA Jonson Space Center. Looks like porting code from Fortran was a source of errors. Some memory was corrupted around R1 and R2 constant (array of 400 elements initialized, but line “for ( i=0 ; i<=400 ; i++)” need to change condition to “i<400 ;”. Also, another memory corruption around “val” variable - ARRAY_SIZE assigned to 1018 – but in assigning “val” operator “if (3*i+1 > recSize) break;“ has to be changed to “if (3*i+1 >= recSize) break;”. Additional for Windows function “fopen” require “outfile = fopen(argv[3], “wb”);” and in module ephem_read.c “Ephemeris_File = fopen(fileName, “rb”);”. Further information at

ON MARCH 07, 2011 05:19 PM Team Plan B. Vehicle design update.

16 month left to the deadline. Attempt to re-design a vehicle. It will be the third re-design from beginning of project, first was flip-flop movement with 5 segments, 8 stepper motors and 2 segments/antennas used as helping legs. First design was abandoned because of a high weight (>8kg) and sophisticated gears which does not reduce mass. Was considered different methods of movement. All was looking good and promising, but requires complicated mechanical parts movable against each other in a vacuum condition, survivability of drop also will be questionable. Mechanical engineers suggest some. . . See more on

ON FEBRUARY 28, 2011 03:04 PM Team Plan B. Introduction. Message A.

ON FEBRUARY 22, 2011 05:17 PM Team Plan B – vehicle design update.

Vehicle design. Three wheels powered by stepper motors gives the vehicle the ability to travel and to steer in desired direction (limited but ability). However, positioning an antenna to the Earth direction will require something more than a stepper motor’s steps with 1.8 degree precisions. Obvious way to do this is to use some ceramic gearbox (one at least). An attempt was made to understand how to build such a gearbox. Was investigated way to manufacture cast for planet and sun gear in Epicyclic gear type ( Such gear’s type was chosen to make it as small as possible and as a result to achieve light weight. For a cast manufacturing it is handy to use a 3D printers ( , , , or a more easy way - to make 3D model design in .stl format, upload it to personal factory like , and build plastic cast with precision 0.2 mm (the same technique can be used to create a cast for any carbon fiber elements of a probe/vehicle). Castable ceramic like 672, 510, 646, 589 can be used. See more on

ON FEBRUARY 16, 2011 06:11 PM Introduction to Team Plan B

Team "Plan B" is a Vancouver based Canadian joint venture bringing together enthusiasts inspired by challenges presented by Google Lunar XPRIZE. In our view this competition is an unprecedented event in the history of space exploration. This engagement is taking place when advances in technology, electronics, telecommunications and science are stretched to their limits. Furthermore expansion and technological slump is readily at everyone's disposal. It’s a time of planting new grass. Seeds will adsorb everything available in current soil of innovation, grow strong on existing high-tech's compost, compete unpredictably with each other, and at the end of the day fertilize new ground for the next metamorphoses of technical knowledge. Team "Plan B" hopes that our feasible supplements will help make that next technological stride possible. For our mission we choose to utilize handy solutions in software, microprocessors, communication, guidance and robotic systems to produce a light weight vehicle capable of wandering 500+0.5 m around the landing site; with coordinate’s 2ºS 15ºW on the Lunar surface. The light weight vehicle must be able to transmit a mooncast. The vehicle will be delivered to the Moon by a probe/craft with fixed impulse engines. Target weight on low-earth orbit for a probe+craft is 100-150 kg, which places it into a category of amateur satellite. Flight scheme will include two orbit correction impulses, one main and one brake impulse with direct arrival to the Moon surface with air-bags providing the soft landing. Designed and manufactured vehicle/craft must pass thermal, mechanical, and vacuum's ground tests prior to making launch arrangements. Two launches are planned to increase chances to succeed. Success on first launch is desired, but is not expected, mistakes in design, errors in calculation, bugs in software on first mission will provide valuable input for the second (Plan B) vehicle/craft/probe re-design. Second launch is planed for 9 month after the first mission. While in flight, the probe's orientation will be performed via inertia momentum created by the rotation of three masses. As a Canadian team, we choose those 3 masses to be three hockey pucks, not because hockey pucks are heavy, but because the touch down will be simultaneously the first face-off on the Moon, in the history of Mankind. All project's development is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This allows everybody to share (to copy, distribute and transmit) and to remix (to adapt) anything related to designs and development done by team "Plan B".  

October 2009 - November 2009

This was original idea – to have flat probe with 5 legs – two legs will be with antennas and two legs will be equipped with 4 motors each – middle leg will be with 2 camera - movement of probe was designed to be a flip-flop steps – each leg has a freedom against each other:

on a surface:

With one camera elevated to get picture (or in movement):

With one antenna oriented to earth direction:



 And that are pictures of assembled leg:


Upon the lunar surface all probes will land flat  - 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.05m perfect for air bag protection. But idea does not work – calculations showed that even with 1/6 of earth gravity geared motor are required. Regular step motors does not produces enought momentum.  One (motorized) leg was designed, built, and tested. Tests also showed that it will be hard to protect solar panel from damage due to sharp stones and sharp lunar dust. Another problem – weight of leg give estimation for total weight – 8 -10 kg. Despite perfect moving capabilities and ideal camera's viewing position this design was abandoned. As a result those pictures are only what was left to remind – calculate first and do build after.


 On previous picture holder for a 360 degree motor. Was not strong enough – can be re-enforced by changing bolting screws


Also another problem - need to reinforce back of the motor – otherwise it will bend at certain degree of impact:


It is clear visible on previous and next picture. 


It is clear visible on previous picture.


Solar panel (screw for bolting visible on a tube) will be in 25 mm distance from a ground - need to place protection shield on both sides – all shields will reduce solar exposure.


Only one part was satisfactory – extender between two motors - it gives 360 degree movement for a second motor.

Another useful knowledge from that “flat” design - stepper motors will require disassembling and removing original bearings and changing it for ceramic one – bearing needs to be easy to change. If decision will be made to return to “geared” motors – gears have to be ceramic ones – even with different ceramics available now - design and build can be problematic and time consuming.